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Calculator History Timeline

By Rick Bensene

Last Updated 7/23/2020

This page of the Old Calculator Web Museum is a timeline of known historical points, milestones, and other time-related material relating to calculator technology.

Oct Birth of Hisashige Tanaka, founder of precursor to Toshiba [16-Oct]

Apr Birth of Frank S. Baldwin, prolific and revolutionary calculating machine designer [10-Apr]

Aug Birth of Willgodt T. Odhner, inventor of the pinwheel calculating mechanism [10-Aug]

Isaac Merritt Singer forms I.M. Singer & Company, manufacturing sewing machines

Jan Birth of William S. Burroughs I, founder of American Arithmometer Co. (Precursor of Burroughs Corp.) [28-Jan]

I.M. Singer & Co. changes name to Singer Manufacturing Co.

Apr Passing of Frank S. Baldwin, mechanical calculating machine designer [8-Apr]

Odhner Arithmometer invented in Russia by WT Odhner, using Odhner's pinwheel mechanism

Hisashige Tanaka opens telegraph equipment manufacturing factory (precursor to Toshiba)

Bell Punch Co., Ltd. Incorporated
Aug Birth of Heinrich Diehl, co-founder of Diehl Corp. [3-Aug]

Aug Birth of Margarete Schmidt(Diehl), co-founder of Diehl Corp. [25-Aug]

Nov Founder of precursor to Toshiba, Hisashige Tanaka, passes away [7-Nov]

Daikichi Tanaka, apprentice of Hisashige Tanaka, starts Tanaka Engineering Works (Toshiba precursor)

National Cash Register Co. (NCR) founded by John H. Patterson

Jan American Arithmometer Co. (precusor to Burroughs) founded in St. Louis, Missouri
Carl Walther Company founded, producing firearms

Dorr E. Felt and Robert Tarrant form partnership manufacturing "Comptometer" calculating machines as Felt & Tarrant

Mar Birth of Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International [31-Mar]

Ichisuke Fujioka & Shoichi Miyoshi form Hakunetsusha & Co., Ltd. (later Tokyo Electic Company)

Apr Carl Friden born in Alvesta, Sweden, founder of what became Friden Calculatin Machine Co. [11-Apr]
May Gerard Philips founds Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, Holland, making light bulbs (precursor to Philips Electronics, N.V.) [15-May]
May Japan's Ministry of Communications establishes Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [24-May]

Nov Birth of Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of what became Hayakawa Electric (Sharp Corporation) [3-Nov]

Winklhofer & Jaenicke (later, Wanderer-Werke AG) founded in Chemnitz, Germany manufacturing motorcycles
Herman Hollerith founds Tabulating Machine Co. (precursor to IBM)

Aug Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. established by Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda (Precursor to NEC)
Sep William S. Burroughs I, founder of Burroughs Corp., passes away [14-Sep]

Jul Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. Incorporated (Precursor to NEC) [17-Jul]

Sep Birth of Kazuma Tateisi, future founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics [20-Sep]

Jan Curt Herzstark, inventor of the Curta calculator, Born in Vienna, Austria [26-Jan]
Sep Heinrich & Margarete Diehl start business as a metal artwork foundary (Beginnings of Diehl Corp.)
Dec Birth of Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. [28-Dec]

Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH founded in Berlin (Beginnings of Olympia International)

American Arithmometer Co. moves from St. Louis to Detroit; changes name to Burroughs Adding Machine Co.

Sep Willgodt T. Odhner passes away, inventor of Odhner Arithmometer [15-Sep]
Mercedes Büro-Maschinen Werke AG established in Thuringia, Germany
American Arithmometer Co. renamed to "Burroughs Adding Machine Co."

May Birth of Karl Diehl, son of Diehl Corp. founders [4-May]

Universal Adding Machine Co. acquired by Burroughs
Apr Birth of Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (later, Sony) [11-Apr]
Kanekichi Yasui establish Yasui Sewing Machine Co. (precursor to Brother)
Oct Camillo Olivetti founds Ing. G. Olivetti & Co., S.p.A., in Ivrea, Italy, manufacturing typewriters

Burroughs acquires Pike Adding Machine Co.

Nippon Phonograph Co., Ltd. founded by Frederick Whitney Horne (later, Nippon Columbia/Denon)
Feb Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd (a.k.a. Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.) founded
Jun Konrad Zuse born in Berlin, Germany
Sperry Gyroscope Co. founded
Brothers Rodney and Alfred Marchant begin manufacturing calculating machines in Oakland, California
Namihei Odaira founds Hitachi, Ltd, maker of electric motors

Tabulating Machine Co. changes name to Computing, Tabulating and Recording Co. (CTR), later becomes IBM

Muldivo founded in London by Henri Ebstein as a distributor of office machines
N.V. Philips Gloeilampfabrieken Incorporated (Philips)
Apr Jay R. Monroe and Frank Baldwin establish the Monroe Calculator Co. [25-Apr]
Sep David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, born in Pueblo, Colorado [7-Sep]
Sep Tokuji Hayakawa founds metal-working shop in Tokyo, Japan that marks the precursor to Sharp Corp. [15-Sep]

Marchant brothers incorporate calculator business as Marchant Calculating Machine Co.
May Birth of William R. Hewlett, future co-founder of Hewlett Packard [20-May]

Hayakawa Brothers Company established by Tokuji Hayakawa (Precursor to Sharp Corp.)
May Tadashi Sasaki born in Taiwan [12-May]

National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers founded in Chicago

Nov Tadao Kashio born, Nangoku City, Japan - Future co-founder of Casio [26-Nov]

AB Addo founded in Malmo, Sweden by Hugo Agrell
Matsushita Electric Housewares Mfg. Works (Panasonic) founded by Konosuke Matsushita
Mar Victor Adding Machine Co. founded in Chicago, IL, by Carl Buehler
May Birth of Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu (Wang Laboratories) [3-May]
Aug Birth of Katherine Johnson, who became one of NASA's leading "human computers" (with the help of a Monroe electromechanical calculator) [26-Aug]

Birth of Barney Oliver, RADAR pioneer, and later, founding director of HP Labs, responsible for overseeing development of groundbreaking HP 9100 and HP-35 calculators
Jun Birth of Stanley Frankel, Manhattan Project Physicist, Computer & Calculator designer. See exhibit on the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR for more information. [6-Jun]
Jul Birth of Frank Wyle, Founder of Wyle Laboratories [23-Jul]
Willard Rockwell forms a company in Wisconsin making truck axle bearings forming the foundation of what becomes Rockwell International
The first Victor Adding Machine, the Model 110, is introduced

Feb An Wang born in Shanghai, China - Future founder of Wang Laboratories

Jan Birth of Akio Morita, co-founder of Sony [26-Jan]
Mitsubishi Electric Corp. formed as spinoff of Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co.
Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Co. purchased by Burroughs

AB Åtvidabergs Industrier founded in Sweden by Elof Ericsson (becomes Facit AB)
Laurence Marshall and Vannevar Bush are founders of American Appliance Co. (becomes Raytheon)

Dictaphone Corp. formed out of Columbia Gramophone Co.
Sep Hayakawa Brothers Company facilities destroyed by Great Kanto Earthquake and subsequent fires
Nov Birth of Jack Kilby, inventor of the first experimental Integrated Circuit

Birth of Yoshio Kojima (Future President of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
Carl Walther Company begins manufacture and sale of calculating machines
Sep Tokuji Hayakawa opens rebuilt metal-working business in Osaka, Japan, as Hayakawa Metal Laboratories [1-Sep]
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. listed on New York Stock Exchange
Computing, Tabulating, and Recording Co. changes name to International Business Machines (IBM)

Due to a name clash, American Appliance Co. changes name to Raytheon Co.
Apr Frank S. Baldwin, calculator designer at Monroe, passes away [8-Apr]
Apr Heinz Nixdorf born in Paderborn, Germany [9-Apr]

L.C. Smith & Bros. and Corona Typewriter merge to become Smith Corona
Nov Kanekichi Yasui, founder of Yasui Sewing Machine Co. passes away
Nov Masayoshi Yasui, son of founder Yasui Sewing Machine Co. suceeds his father as CEO of the company
Yasui Sewing Machine Co. renamed Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co.

Remington Typewriter Co. and Rand Kardex merge to form Remington Rand
Mar Birth of Robert H. Norman, Electronics Engineer & Businessman (General Micro-electronics, Nortec Electronics) [24-Mar]
Remington Rand purchases Powers Accounting Machine Co.
Dec Birth of Robert Noyce, inventor of the first practical Integrated Circuit, and co-founder of Integrated Electronics (Intel) [12-Dec]

Nippon Calculating Machine Co. Ltd. founded in Osaka, Japan
Brand name "Brother" registered by Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co.
Jul Birth of Robert A. Ragen, architect of the Friden EC-130 electronic calculator [23-Jul]
Sep Paul Galvin founds Galvin Manufacturing Corp., in Chicago, Illinois (Precursor to Motorola)

Jan Birth of Gordon E. Moore, Co-Founder of Intel, and creator of "Moore's Law" [3-Jan]
Jan Birth of Kazuo Kashio, co-founder of Casio Computer Co., Ltd. [9-Jan]
Feb Massimo Rinaldi, Designer and patent holder of IME Calculators, born [21-Feb]
Apr Birth of Dale Perry Masher, Co-designer at SRI of display subsystem for Friden 130 [14-Apr]
Carl Friden leaves as head of design department of Marchant Calculating Machine Co.
National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers renamed to Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Dec Idek Tramielski (Jack Tramiel) Born in Lodz, Poland (founder of Commodore) [13-Dec]

May Geophysical Service founded. (Precursor to Texas Instruments)
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH moves from Berlin to Erfürt, Germany
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH renamed to "Europa Schreibmaschinen AG", creates the brand name "Olympia" for their typewriters
Dorr Eugene Felt, co-founder of Felt & Tarrant, passes away
Nov Birth of James (Phil) Ferguson, co-founder of General Micro-electronics [18-Nov]
Dec Birth of Pier Giorgio Perotto, designer of the Olivetti Programma 101 programmable electronic calculator [24-Dec]

Jan Birth of Eiichi Goto, inventor of Parametron [22-Jan]
Mar Julius J. Muray, (VP of Cintra) Born in Hungary [22-Mar]
Apr Irwin Wunderman (founder of Cintra) born [24-Apr]

Olivetti makes first public stock offering
Carl Buehler, fouder of Victor Adding Machine Co., passes away
Sep Birth of Howard Rathbun, Co-Inventor of Monroe EPIC 2000 and EPIC 3000 calculators with Mark Pivovonsky. US Patent 3,328,763 [24-Sep]

Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) established (precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Mar Birth of Atsushi Asada, visionary engineer behind development of Electronic Calculators at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Birth of William Kahn, designer of Mathatronics Mathatron calculator
May Friden Calculating Machine, Co. founded by Carl Friden with $52,000 in capital
May Future inventor of CMOS IC technology, Frank Wanlass, born in Thatcher, Arizona [17-May]
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. Co. founded by Kazuma Tateisi, Osaka Japan (becomes OMRON Corp.)
Sperry Corp. formed

Jan Friden Calculating Machine Co. founded in Oakland, CA on $100K investment from four investors
Litton Industries founded by Charles Litton Sr.
Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co. renamed Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co.
Barry Wright Corp. founded (later purchased Mathatronics, Inc.)

IBM announces the 601 Multiplying Punch (electro-mechanical punched-card calculator)
May Hayakawa Metal Industry Institute Co., Ltd. incorporated from Hayakaya Metal Laboratories, Tokuji Hayakawa Founder & President (future Sharp Corp.) [1-May]
May Birth of Howard Zabriskie Bogert, calculator designer & LSI engineer [5-May]
Jun Fujitsu founded as manufacturing arm of Fuji Electric Ltd., building telephone exchange-related equipment

Feb Riken Kankoshi Co., Ltd. founded by Kiyoshi Ichimure as spinoff of Rikagaku Kogyo (precursor to Ricoh) [6-Feb]
Jun General Precision Equipment Corp. founded
Hayakawa Metal Industry Institute Co., Ltd. changes name to Hayakawa Industrial Co., Ltd. (future Sharp Corp.)
Europa Schreibmaschinen AG renamed Olympia Büromaschinen Werke AG (Olympia Office Machine Works)
Friden Calculating Machine, Co., moves to San Leandro, California

Librascope Inc. founded by Mr. Lewie Imm
Aug Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. Incorporated (Precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Oct Marcian (Ted) Hoff, designer of the first single-chip microprocessor, born in Rochester, New York

Konrad Zuse completes the mostly mechanical V1 (later known as Z1), a prototype of a programmable calculating machine using binary elements
Mar Riken Kankoshi Co. Ltd. changes name to Riken Optical Co. Ltd. (Ricoh)
Nov Heinrich Diehl (founder of Diehl Corp.) passes, son Karl assumes presidency of company [7-Nov]
Dec Incorporation of Geophysical Service (precursor to Texas Instruments)

Jan Hewlett Packard founded by Bill Hewlett & David Packard in Palo Alto, California USA
Tokyo Electric Co. and Shibaura Engineering Works Co., Ltd. merge to form Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Later, Toshiba)
Clary Corp. founded by Hugh L. Clary
Geophysical Service Inc.(GSI) changes name to Coronado Corp., GSI continues as subsidiary
Apr Construction of Bell Laboratories' relay-based "Complex Number Calculator" begins
Oct Bell Laboratories' relay-based "Complex Number Calculator" completed [First Relay-Based General Purpose Calculator]

Sep Public Demonstration of Bell Laboratories' "Complex Number Calculator" [11-Sep] [First example of remote computing]
Nov Birth of Harold Koplow (Senior Calculator Engineer at Wang Labs), in Lynn, MA [21-Nov]

GSI Subsidiary of Coronado Corp. sold
Librascope Inc. purchased by General Precision Equipment Corp.
May Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd. (Uchida Yoko) incoroporated
Michael James Cochran (Chief Calculator Architect, Texas Instruments) born in Daytona Beach, Florida [21-May]
Sep Birth of H. Edward Roberts, future founder of MITS [13-Sep]
Small four-function relay calculator developed by Fuji Electric Works, Japan
Dec Konrad Zuse completes the V3 (later known as Z3) relay-based programmable calculator

Fuji Star Calculator Mfg. Established (Precursor to Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
Hayakawa Industrial Co., Ltd. changes business name to Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd.

Jan Harvard Mark I (also called ASCC, for Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) completed
Curt Herzstark, under Nazi orders, draws up plans what becomes the Curta calculator while imprisoned in German Buchenwald concentration camp
Jul Bell Labs Completes Model II "Relay Interpolator"
Aug Masatoshi Shima (behind the pioneering development of microprocessor in Busicom calculator) born in Shizuoka, Japan [22-Aug]

Mar Bell Labs Completes Model IV "Error Detector Mark 22" Relay Calculator
Apr Carl Friden, founder of Friden Calculating Machine Co., passes away [29-Apr]
Fuji Star Calculator Mfg. refounded as Nippon Calculator Co., Ltd. after WWII (Precursor of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
Walter S. Johnson assumes role as President of Friden Calculating Machine Co.
Jun Bell Labs Completes Model III Relay-Based "Ballistic Computer"

Jan Tektronix, Inc. founded by Jack Murdock and Howard Vollum in Portland, Oregon USA
Apr Tadao Kashio and son Kazuo start "Kashio Seisansho" (Kashio Manufacturing, later "Casio Computer Co., Ltd.")
May Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corp.) established (later, Sony) by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita [7-May]
Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd Incorporated, Tokyo, Japan
Sankyo Seiki Mfg. founded, development of mechanical music box movements begins
Tadashi Sasaki visits transistor technology researchers at Bell Labs
Nov Calculating race in Tokyo, between desktop electromechanical calculator and abacus - Abacus Won! [12-Nov]

Feb Sanyo Electric Works founded by Toshio Iue, Osaka Japan, producing bicycle light generators
Galvin Manufacturing Corp. changes name to "Motorola, Inc."
Curta calculator (Type I) begins production
Aug Hewlett Packard Co. Incorporated
Sep Seiki Kogako Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. changes name to "Canon Camera Co., Inc."
Dec The point contact transistor is invented at Bell Laboratories

Jun Bell Laboratories publically demonstrates the transistor [30-Jun]
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. changes name to Tateisi Electronics Co.
Futaba Denshi founded in Mobara, Japan, manufacturing radio vacuum tubes
Raytheon introduces the first commercial point-contact transistor, the CK703

First Japanese Business Machine Exposition held in Tokyo, Japan
Wyle Laboratories founded, El Segundo, CA
Introduction of the Friden STW-10 electromechanical calculator at the fall New York Business Show
Bell Labs' Relay-Based Complex Number Calculator dismanteled

Jan Oi Electric Co. Ltd., founded
Coronado Corp. changes name to General Instruments, Inc.
Nippon Electric begins transistor R&D effort
Apr Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Incorporated [1-Apr]
Canon Camera Co., Inc. opens branch office in New York City
Diehl Corp. begins development of mechanical calculating machines
Nov Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. (a.k.a. Broughtons of Bristol) Incorporated, Providing Sales & Support of Imported Office Equipment [17-Nov]

Jan Due to a name clash, General Instruments Inc. changes name to Texas Instruments Inc.
The junction transistor is invented by William Shockley
Jun Dr. An Wang begins Wang Laboratories with $600 of his own money [22-Jun]
Concept of microprogramming conceived by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University
Jul Bell Labs announces the development of the junction transistor [4-Jul]
Bell Labs begins selling licensing rights to transistor technology for $25,000
Sep Bell Labs hosts first technology forum for potential licensees of transistor

Mar Takachiho Koheki Co. Ltd. founded [13-Mar]
Apr Bell Laboratories hosts nine-day Transistor Technology Symposium for licensees of transitor technology
Benson-Lehner introduces the Computyper (later sold to Friden)
Japan's Electotechnical Laboratory (ETL) develops prototype relay calculator, the ETL Mark 1
First demonstration of magnetic core memory
Jun Wang Laboratories incorporated [30-Jun]
Friden SRW electromechanical calculator introduced [First Desktop Electromechanical Calculator with Automatic Square Root]
Founding of transistor manufacturer Transitron Electronic Corp.
Jul Heinz Nixdorf founds Labor für Impulstechnik, in Essen, Germany (later, Nixdorf Computer, Inc.) [1-Jul]
Aug Physical Research Laboratories acquired by Marchant Calculators, Inc., renamed Marchant Research Inc. [7-Aug]
Diehl Corp. begins production of semi-automatic mechanical calculators

Jan Paul G. Allen, Future Co-Founder of Microsoft, Born in Seattle, Washington [21-Jan]
National Cash Register Co., acquires Computer Research Corp., forming NCR Electronics Division
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. renamed to Burroughs Corporation
Nov University of Manchester's experimental transistorized computer operational [First Transistor-based(Logic) General Purpose Computer]
Philco Corporation develops surface barrier transistor, a Germanium transistor that could operate faster than others, perfect for high-speed computers
First practical use of magnetic core memory in a computer; 32x32x16 (1024 16-bit words) array in Whirlwind I using tube-based drivers and amps
Raytheon announces the first mass-produced commercial junction transistor, the Germanium PNP CK722

Jan Bell Labs' transistorized TRADIC computer goes operational [First Transistor-based(Logic) Computer in US]
Büromaschinen Werke AG renamed to Olympia Werke AG
Mar Parametron invented in Japan by Eiji Goto (Parametron-Based Logic Used in Oi Electric's Aleph Zero Calculator)
Japan's Eletrotechnical Laboratory creates Electronics Department specifically tasked with electronic technology research & development
Brother International Corp. established in US by Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co.
Apr Texas Instruments R&D Develops First Functional Silicon Junction Transistor [4-Apr]
Burroughs purchases Haydu Brothers, manufacturers of vacuum tubes (and inventors of Nixie display tubes)
May Texas Instruments announces it will begin production of Silicon transistors [10-May]
Jul Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (Sony) announces availability of the first transistor produced in Japan, a PNP Germanium-alloy device
Sep Toyo Electronics Industry established in Kyoto Japan, known as R.ohm (future ROHM Semiconductor)
Oct Fuji Telecommunications Mfg. (later Fujitsu) introduces FACOM 100 programmable relay calculator (~4,500 relays)
Friden Calculating Machine Co. opens production facility in Wageningen, Holland
Production of the Curta Type II begins
Dec Toshio and Tadao Kashio (Kashio Seisakujo - later Casio) completes prototype solenoid-operated electric calculator
Dec The Regency TR-1, the first transistor radio, is introduced

Feb Monroe introduces the Monrobot III Vacuum Tube-Based/Magnetic Drum Programmable Electronic Desk-Sized Calculator
Autonetics established as an independent division of North American Rockwell specializing in military electronics
Canon opens US Branch office in New York City, establishing Canon USA
Texas Instruments introduces the first commercial Silicon-junction transistors, the 900-Series
Typewriter marketing firm, Commodore International Ltd., founded by Jack Tramiel in Toronto, Canada
May Dr. An Wang granted US Patent 2,708,722 for principles of principles of magnetic core memory
Remington Rand merges with Sperry Gyroscope Corp., forming Sperry Rand
Jun Wang Laboratories incorporated
Aug Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Ltd. (Sony) listed as OTC stock on Tokyo Stock Exchange
Sep Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Ltd. (Sony) launches sale of the first Japanese transistor radio, the TR-55
Oct Birth of William Henry Gates, Seattle, WA [28-Oct]
Nov Introduction of Stanley Frankel-designed Librascope LGP-30 Small Computer
Nov Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory completes large-scale relay-based ETL Mark II Computer, over 20,000 relays

Development project behind the Bell Punch electronic calculator begins
Mar Friden acquires Commercial Controls Corp. (Originator of Flexowriter/Justowriter)
Mar Japan's Fuji Photographic Film Co. completes Japan's first electronic computer, FUJIC, 1700 vacuum tubes, delay line memory
Mar Dr. An Wang sells rights to core memory principles patent to IBM for $500,000 to provide capital for Wang Laboratories [4-Mar]
Facit starts up subsidiary called Facit Electronics to build and sell electronic computers
Jul Japan's Eletrotechnical Laboratory completes Japan's first Transistorized Computer, the ETL Mark III
Casio Computer Co., Ltd. shows prototype relay-based general purpose calculator
Goverment action requires Bell Labs to make transistor design information available for licensing

Jan Casio Computer Co., Ltd. formally founded from Kashio Seisansho
Sherman Fairchild, founder of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, funds startup of Fairchild Semiconductor
Felt and Tarrant Mfg. Co. becomes "Comptometer Corp."
RCA introduces the 2N404 PNP alloy-junction Germanium transistor - heavily used in early American electronic calculator designs
Clary Corp. introduces a plugboard-programmable electronic calculator built into a desk, the DE-60
Elmer R. Easton joins Wyle Laboratories as part of its management team after five years at Lear Inc. (Aircraft)
Digital Equipment Corporation founded in Maynard, Massachusetts
The "Nixie" numeric display tube goes into volume production at Burroughs
Jun Casio Computer Co., Ltd. incorporated [1-Jun]
Jun Casio 14-A Relay Calculator debuts for sale, 342 relays [Casio's First Electrical Calculator]
Jun Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd. contracted as exclusive distributor of Casio relay calculators
IBM introduces the 610 "Auto-Point" calculator (floating point, programmable w/magnetic drum, vacuum-tube logic)

Jan Bell Punch shows prototype of electronic calculator using cold-cathode tube technology
Jan Marchant closes down Marchant Research subsidiary
Jan Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, Ltd., renamed to Sony Corporation
Matsushita Communication Industrial Co., Ltd. established as spin off from Matsusushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. introduces the NEAC-1101 and NEAC-1102 computers based on Parametron technology
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. acquired by Litton Industries
Marchant acquires Johnson Adding Machine Co.
Apr Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. agree in principle to merge [7-Apr]
Jun Merger of Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. completed, forming SCM Corp
Sep First Integrated Circuits: Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments/Robert Noyce, Fairchild
Dec Sony Corporation listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange

Hitachi establishes business presence in the US; Hitachi America, Ltd.
Friden SBT-10 electromechanical calculator introduced offering "Back Transfer" from carriage to keyboard
Apr Varadyne Industries, Inc. incorporated in Santa Monica, CA
Olivetti introduces Italy's first commercial electronic computer, the transistorized Elea 9003
May Casio 14-B Relay calculator introduced (Automatic Square Root)
May National Semiconductor founded in Danbury, Connecticut
Nov Design team formed at Packard Bell to develop what becomes the PB-250 computer

Feb NEC prototypes first Japanese-made Mesa-type Germanium transistor [19-Feb]
Feb Sony establishes Sony Corporation of America in United States
Feb First customer shipment of Clary DE 60 desk-sized programmable electronic calculator
Mar Texas Instruments announces the SN502 "Solid Circuit" Silicon Monolithic IC Flip Flop ($450 Retail Cost Per Flip Flop!) [TI's First Commercially Sold Digital IC]
Nippon Electric begins R&D effort in Integrated Circuit technology
Comptometer Corp. sells right use trademark "Comptometer" to Control Systems Ltd., the owner of Bell Punch Co. Ltd., and Sumlock, Ltd.
Mar Casio 301 Scientific relay calculator introduced
Philco files for bankruptcy protection, seeks buyer for distressed business
Apr Engineers from Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) visit Prof. Hiroshi Ozaki at Osaka University to study transistorized digital logic design principles
Aug Prototype Packard Bell PB-250 computer operational
Sep Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally creates high technology product research department
Sep Fairchild produces first functional planar monolithic integrated circuit
Oct First production Packard Bell PB-250 computer delivered to customer
Research into development of purely electronic calculator begins at Hayakawa Electric(Sharp) within newly formed R&D department under direction of Mr. Atsushi Asada

William Kahn begins design specification for Mathatron calculator
Feb Casio announces the "TUC Compuwriter", a relay-based calculating machine for business that provided a Toshiba-made output typewriter
Sony R&D Engineer Saburu Uemura creates a "homebrew" transistorized electronic abacus (calculator) using over one-thousand reject radio transistors
Mar Clary introduces DAC-2500 electronic calculating unit as OEM product (derived from DE 60 programmable calculator)
VEB Mechanik Büromaschinenwerk Rheinmetall (East Germany) introduces line of rotary electromechanical calculators under the Supermetall brand
Mar Fairchild announces its MicroLogic family of bipolar logic integrated circuits
Apr Logicon Inc. founded by eight engineers in Redondo Beach, CA, focusing on defense-oriented computing systems
May Friden Calculating Machine Co. contacts Stanford Research Institute (SRI) to develop a CRT-based display system for a calculator
Mitsubishi Electric produces Japan's first integrated circuit
TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) invented at Thompson Ramo Wooldridge (TRW) by James Buie
Sumlock Comptometer Ltd. founded, primary distributor for Bell Punch calculators
Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co. (Brother) begins manufacturing office products
Tadashi Sasaki earns PhD in Electrical Engineering from Kyoto University
BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) formed from reorganization of Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Sep SRI Delivers Prototype CRT Display System to Friden, One Month Ahead of Schedule
Sep Signetics (contraction of Signal Network Electronics) Corp. founded by ex-Fairchild engineers [12-Sep]
Oct Sumlock Comptometer/Bell Punch introduce the Anita C/VII (Mark 7) and the C/VIII (Mark 8) at the Hamburg Business Equipment Fair
Oct Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) shown to the world at London Exposition [First mass-marketed desktop electronic calculator]
Oct Victor Adding Machine Co. and Comptometer Corp. merge to form Victor Comptometer Corp.
Oct First public exhibition of the Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) at the Business Efficiency Exhibition in London
Nov Friden begins project EDTC-1, integrating SRI Display System with Friden-developed Calculator Logic
Dec Diehl Corp. (West Germany) and SCM forge agreement for SCM to have exclusive rights to market Diehl calculators in North America [9-Dec]
Dec Ford Motor Company purchases Philco, creating Philco-Ford division, marketing electronic semiconductor components, consumer products, computer systems, and defense industry equipment [11-Dec]

Jan Sumlock Comptometer begins accepting orders for the Anita Mk7 and Anita Mk8 calculators
Jan Sumlock Comptometer begins mass manufacturing of the Anita Mk7 and Anita Mk8
Feb Rapid Data Systems & Equipment, Ltd. incorporated [6-Feb]
Feb Mathatronics Inc., founded by William Kahn, Roy Reach, and David Shapiro. Formal design of Mathatron calculator begins
Mar Signetics announces the SE-100 series of DTL (Diode-Transistor Logic) Integrated Circuits [First Commercial DTL ICs]
Remex Corp. opens doors in Palm Beach, FL, as a business machine distributor
Facit shuts down Facit Electronics subsidiary due to extreme competition in the computer marketplace
Philips demonstrates two prototype transistorized electronic adding machines and a 3-function (+,-,X) 10-key calculator
Stanford Research Institute delivers prototype CRT Display design and hardware to Friden
Casio introduces the AL-1 scientific relay calculator with preset programmability
Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) founded in Rome, Italy, as partnership between Dr. Massimo Rinaldi and Edison S.p.A.
May Friden's EDTC-1 magnetic drum-based electronic calculator prototype operational
May Addmaster Corp. incorporated to manufacture low-cost adding machines utilizing DuPont DELRIN(TM) plastic components
Commodore International, Ltd. goes public, changes name to Commodore Business Machines
Jun SRI issues refund of $4,444.62 to Friden due to Display Project efficiency
Jun Friden starts design project to replace magnetic drum with magnetostrictive delay line, prototype machine designated EDTC-3
Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. establishes US sales presence as Sharp Electronics Corp.
Nippon Sewing Machine Co. changes name to Brother Industries, Ltd.
Saburo Uemura, researcher at Sony, demonstrates third prototype hand-built electronic calculator with typewriter output, designated MD-3, to skeptical management
Olivetti begins design of Programma 101 electronic calculator under direction of Pier Giorgio Perotto
Nov Smith-Corona Marchant changes company name to SCM Corp.
Nov Soviet Union demonstrates operational prototype of an all-electronic calculator, precursor to VEGA
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan) begins project for development of an electronic calculator
Friden SRQ electromechanical calculator introduced, offering automatic square root [First Electromechanical Rotary Calculator with Square Root]
Dec Working prototype of Mathatron calculator formally demonstrated to investors of Mathatronics Inc.
Dec Ricoh Industries, U.S.A. Inc. founded

Mar First order for two Mathatronics Mathatron calculators placed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
Apr Ricoh Europe S.A. established in Switzerland
Apr Riken Optical Co. Ltd. changes name to "Ricoh Co., Ltd."
Jun Friden exhibits prototype Friden 130 electronic calculator
Jun General Micro-electronics, spinoff of Fairchild, founded by Col. Arthur Lowell(US Marine Corps) along with, and James (Phil) Ferguson, Robert Norman and Howard Bobb (All three from Fairchild) [31-Jun]
Jun Founders of General Micro-electronics reach agreement in principle with Pyle National for Pyle National to provide startup funding of approx $4-5M
Sanyo introduces the "Cadnica" line of Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable batteries
Singer Manufacturing Co. changes named to Singer Corp.
Jun SCM Corp. announces plan to move manufacturing calculators from Oakland, CA, to Orangeburg, SC
Jul Announcement of intent for Singer Corp. to acquire Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Jul]
Jul Mathatronics Inc., successfully completes first customer shipment of Mathatron Model 8-48 calculator to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute for shipboard research use
Jul Canon Camera Co. Inc. completes prototype 10-key electronic calculator
Aug Formal agreement approval announced for Singer Corp.'s acquisition of Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Aug]
Diehl Corp. introduces the "Transmatic", a sophisticated four-function electromechanical automatic printing calculator
Aug Oi Electric exhibits trial production prototype of Aleph Zero calculator
Fairchild introduces the first RTL (Resistor-Transistor Logic) Flip Flop IC, the 907
Sep Project to develop BASIC Timesharing System begins at Dartmouth College
Oct Sale of Friden Calculating Machine Co. to Singer Corp. completed [14-Oct]
Oct Philip R. Samwell succeeds Walter S. Johnson as President of Friden Division of Singer Corp.
Oct Friden Division of Singer Corp. acquires Physical Sciences Corp. of Arcadia, CA
Oct Pyle National announces majority funding of General Micro-electronics [23-Oct]
Oct General Micro-electronics announces production of its first MOS IC family, dubbed Picologic
Thomas Osborne leaves SCM Corp.
Nov Mathatronics Mathatron formally introduced @ NEREM show, Boston [Many Firsts: First All-Transistor w/Magnetic Core Memory, "Learn Mode" Stored Program, Floating Decimal, Scientific Notation, Algebraic Logic, Automatic Square Root]
Dec MOS IC guru Frank Wanlass(5/17/1933-9/9/2010) leaves Fairchild to join General Micro-electronics for MOS LSI development

Jan Thomas Osborne begins work on developing his own calculator design
Feb K&M Electronics founded, developing electronic inventory systems
The Dual In-Line Package (DIP) for ICs invented at Fairchild R&D Lab
David Takagishi (later of Cintra) begins work at Fairchild Semiconductor
Dartmouth College Receives NSF Grants for Development of Timeshared BASIC
Dr. Tadashi Sasaki leaves Fujitsu for senior management position at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Feb Dartmouth Receives two GE Computers for implementation of Timeshared BASIC, GE-225 and GE Datanet-30
Casio builds prototype transistorized desktop calculator
Wang Labs begins development of LOCI-1 Calculator
Mar Italy's IME (Industria Macchine Elettroniche) shows the IME 84 electronic calculator [IME's First Electronic Calculator]
Mar Sony shows prototype MD-5 electronic calculator at World Electronics Show, New York City [Sony's First Publically Shown Desktop Electronic Calculator]
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) shows prototype Compet 10 (Model CS-10A) transistorized electronic calculator
Mar Oi Electric Co., Ltd. shows prototype version of Aleph Zero 101 electronic calculator [Parametron (ferro-electronic) logic]
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally announces the Compet 10 electronic calculator
Apr Wyle Laboratories demonstrates prototype Wyle WS-01 Scientific magnetic-disk-based electronic calculator at Spring Joint Computer Conference, Washington D.C. [21 to 23-Apr]
Apr IBM announces the System/360 (includes Model 30, 40, 50, 60, 62, and 70) [7-Apr]
Apr Friden announces the EC-130 to its sales force at annual "Fiesta de los Conquistadores" sales convention in Boca Raton, FL. [29-Apr]
May The Dartmouth Time Shared System (DTSS) runs its first BASIC (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) program on Dartmouth College's GE 265(GE-225 & Datanet 30) Computer System [1-May]
May Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally introduces the Compet CS-10A Electronic Calculator [14-May]
May Sony announces intent to enter the electronic calculator marketplace [14-May]
May Friden formally introduces the EC-130 electronic calculator in event held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, with retail price of $2,150 [20-May] [Friden's First Electronic Calculator]
May George E. Comstock (future founder of Diablo Systems) hired at Friden as R&D Director
May Canon shows Canola 130 Prototype [Canon's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Friden begins national advertising campaign for the EC-130 electronic calculator [6-Jun]
Jun Fairchild introduces the 930-Series DTL IC Logic family of four IC's
Jun Casio 401 Relay calculator introduced
Citizen Business Machine Inc. established as subsidiary of Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.
Jul Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) commences delivery of Compet 10 (CS-10A) electronic calculator in Japan [Sharp's First Electronic Calculator]
Soviet "VEGA" electronic calculator begins production [Soviet Union's First Electronic Calculator]
Aug General Micro-electronics (GM-e) publically announces their first "large-scale" MOS IC, the PL200 20-Bit shift register
Aug The Friden EC-130 electronic calculator wins Industrial Design award at WESCON convention in Los Angeles [25 to 28-Aug]
Aug Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) forms Industrial Instrument Division to focus on electronic calculator business
Aug Olivetti's Computer Division sold to General Electric. Electronic calculator team saved from sale at last minute by changing classification of the Programma 101 project from "computer" to "calculator". [31-Aug]
Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/IX (Mark 9) debuts
Sep Wang Laboratories introduces the LOCI-1 calculator [Wang Laboratories' First Electronic Calculator]
Sep Dr. An Wang granted US Patent 3,402,285 for principles of Wang LOCI calculator
Oct In-depth article on Sharp's Compet 10 calculator written up in Japan's Semiconductor Technique Magazine
Oct Victor and General Micro-electronics(GM-e) sign contract for GM-e to develop and produce the Victor 3900 calculator
Oct Los Angeles BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) show held, October 19-23
Oct Canon formally introduces the Canola 130 electronic calculator
Oct Texas Instruments begins sale of SN5400-Series TTL Integrated Circuits in flat-pack packages
Dec Wanderer-Werke AG publically shows pre-production prototype of its Conti electronic printing calculator with electronics designed by Labor füur Impulsetechnik (later, Nixdorf) [7-Dec]
Dec British electronic component manufacturer Mullard shows prototype electronic calculator utilizing thyratrons and transistors
Dec Monroe EPIC 2000 calculator introduced [1-Dec]
Dec MOS IC innovator Frank Wanlass(5/17/1933-9/9/2010) leaves General Micro-electronics after only one year, moving to General Instruments
Dec Arthur Lowell resigns (under pressure) as President of General Micro-electronics
Dec James (Phil) Ferguson assumes role of President of General Micro-electronics
Dec Thomas Osborne's "Green Machine" calculator prototype becomes fully operational [24-Dec]
Wyle Laboratories WS-02 Scientific Delay-Line based calculator debuts

Jan Wang Laboratories LOCI-2 electronic calculator debuts [Wang Laboratories' First Programmable Calculator]
General Micro-electronics (GM-e) completes breadboard prototype design for Victor 3900 using its Milliwatt Logic Bipolar integrated circuits
Apr Wanderer-Werke AG formally introduces the Wanderer Conti printing desktop electronic calculator at Hanover Fair
Apr Friden 132 introduced to Friden sales force at annual sales convention [8-Apr]
Fairchild introduces first commercial line of Integrated Circuits using Dual-Inline Package (DIP) format that the company invented
First Hungarian electronic calculator, the transistor-based Hunor 131, introduced. Manufactured by Elektronikus Mérőkészülékek Gyára(EMG)
Apr General Micro-electronics delivers first 25 production Victor 3900 calculators to Victor
Olympia Werke AG introduces the RAE 4/15 [Olympia's First Electronic Calculator]
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces Unicon 160 electronic calculator (Japan Market Only) [NCM/Busicom's First Electronic Calculator]
May Casio 402 Financial relay-based calculator debuts
AB Åtvidabergs Industrier changes its corporate name to Facit AB
Prototype of Data Acquisition Corp. DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator running
Jun First customer deliveres of Monroe EPIC 2000 calculators begin
Jun Smith Corona Marchant announces the SCM Cogito 240 Electronic Calculator
Jun Malcolm McMillan(Physicist) and Jack Volder(CORDIC Developer) demo their "Athena" prototype calculator that uses CORDIC algorithms to perform fixed point trig functions to HP executives
Jun Inventor/Electronics Engineer Thomas Osborne demos his "Green Machine" floating point calculator prototype to HP executives
Jun Casio ends exclusive distribution agreement with Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.
Royal McBee acquired by Litton Industries
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Toshiba) establishes U.S. business presence
Sep Caltype Corporation incorporated, subsidiary of Transistron Electronic Corp. [15-Sep]
Sep Texas Instruments' "Cal-Tech" skunkworks project begins
Sep Sharp introduces the Compet 20 (CS-20A) [Sharp's First Use of Silicon Transistors]
Sep Casio 001 introduced [Casio's First All-Electronic Calculator]
Oct Sharp Compet 20 shown at Japan's 31st Annual Business Machine Show in Osaka, Japan
Oct BEMA show, New York, October 25-29
Oct Dero Research & Development introduces the Sage 1 calculator at BEMA show [First and Only Electronic Calculator by Dero Research]
Oct Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 3900 using General Micro-electronics' MOS Chipset [First MOS LSI IC-Based Electronic Calculator]
Oct Olivetti Programma 101 announced [Olivetti's First Electronic Calculator]
Oct Wang Laboratories' first public demonstation of new 300-Series Calculator
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 21 (CS-21A), adds square root to the Compet 20
Facit AB cements two year exclusive OEM agreement with Sharp to resell electronic calculators under Facit and Addo badges
Nov Canon introduces the Canon 161
Dec Toshiba BC-1001 introduced [Toshiba's First Electronic Calculator]
Combined output of Japanese electronic calculator manufacturers for 1965 is 4,355 machines

Jan Casio Root 001 introduced [Casio's First Electronic Calculator with Square Root]
Jan Alan W. Drew appointed President/CEO of Friden Div. of Singer Corp., succeeding Philip R. Samwell
Mar Sale of General Micro-electronics to Philco-Ford completed.
Mar Hitachi completes prototype desktop electronic calculator
Mar Wang Laboratories begins production of 300-Series Calculators
Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. split from Bell Punch to design and build electronic calculators
Data Acquisition Corp. introduces the DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator
IME introduces the IME 86 calculator
Due to cash problems, Commodore's founder & CEO, Jack Tramiel, sells 17% of his company to Canadian investor, Irving Gould
Sharp introduces the Compet 30 (Model CS-30A) electronic calculator
SCM (Smith-Corona-Marchant) begins sale of the Cogito 240SR electronic Calculator [SCM's first electronic calculator]
Olims Electronics in Australia and Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) form agreement allowing Olims Electronics to build and sell Sharp-designed calculators in Australia
May Diehl introduces the Combitron electronic programmable printing desktop calculator, designed by Stanley Frankel [Diehl's first electronic calculator]
May Casio 164 electronic calculator introduced
Jun Friden partners with Texas Instruments for development of Custom Ring Counter Integrated Circuits using TTL technology
Jul Casio 101 introduced in Japan [First electronic calculator exported by Casio]
Jul Friden introduces the 1217 printing electromechanical calculator to limited regional markets
Jul Chipmaker American Microsystems Inc. (AMI) founded in Santa Clara, California, led by ex-General Micro-electronics co-founder Howard Bobb and Warren Wheeler
Jul Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. introduces the transistorized "Busicom" 161 electronic calculator [NCM's First Mass-Market Electronic Calculator]
Jul Mathatronics, Inc., purchased by Barry Wright Corp., becomes Mathatronics division of Barry Wright Corp.
Sharp introduces update to the Compet 30 (CS-30A) desginated CS-30B, providing support for negative numbers, adding sign and memory register status indicators to the left of the display
Canon U.S.A., Inc. Incorporated
Facit AB acquires AB Addo, a competing Swedish mechanical calculating machine company
Sumlock Comptometer introduces the Anita C/XII (Mark 12) [Sumlock's First All-Transistor Calculator]
Sep ISE Electronics Corp. (Iseden) Founded, maker of Vacuum Fluorescent Display(VFD) numerical indicator devices
Sep Casio ships first export of Casio 101 electronic calculators to Australia where they are sold under Remington brand [First Casio Electronic Calculators Sold Outside Japan]
Sep Casio introduces the Casio 101E (Commodore 500E)
Oct Show of Japanese Business Machines, Toronto, Canada
Oct Nortec Electronics Corp. incorporated, founded by Robert Norman [13-Oct]
Oct Sanyo exhibits prototype DK-141 transistorized electronic calculator
Oct Sharp introduces the Compet 31 (CS-31A), an update to the CS-30B using Mitsubishi-made DTL ICs in the sequencing control logic
Oct Brother International introduces its first electronic calculator, the Calther 130
Oct 50th Anniversary BEMA Exposition, McCormick Place, Chicago [18-20 Oct]
Texas Instruments Begins Sale of 7400-Series TTL ICs in plastic Dual-Inline (DIP) packages
Nov Wang announces availability of the 320SE 4-user Simultaneous "Time Shared" calculator
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 15
Nov Toshiba Introduces the BC-1411
Facit AB begins marketing electronic calculators through OEM agreement with Sharp
Dec Texas Instruments completes "Cal-Tech" prototype [First IC-Based "Handheld" Battery-Powered Calculator]
Combined output of Japanese electronic desktop calculator manufacturers for 1966 is 25,532 machines

Jan Hitachi introduces KK-12 (ELCA-12) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1112 [Hitachi's First Production Electronic Calculator]
Mar Canon introduces the Canola 151 (reduced capacity version of the Canon 161
The Floppy Disk (8-inch) invented at IBM by Alan Shugart
Commodore Business Machines enters OEM agreement with Casio for sales of Casio calculators under the Commodore brand in US & Canada
Mar Texas Instruments' first showing "Cal-Tech" prototype [Prototype LSI IC-Based "Handheld" Calculator]
Sharp introduces the CS-30B, a subtle redesign of the Compet 30 (CS-30A)
Apr Masatoshi Shima Joins Computer Division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co. as Computer Programmer
May Sony Corp. Issues Press Release Announcing the ICC-500W Electronic Calculator. [15-May]
Facit renews its agreement with Sharp for marketing of Sharp-made calculators under the Facit brand after previous two-year agreement expires
North American Aviation and Rockwell-Standard Merge to form North American Rockwell
Data Acquisition Corp. purchased by Picker Nuclear
Chip maker Intersil founded
Toshiba introduces BCT-1211 8-Terminal Timeshared Calculator [First Commercial Timeshared Multi-Terminal Calculating System]
Chip maker Electronic Arrays founded
Jun Toshiba introduces the BC-1201 electronic calculator
Jun First ever Consumer Electronics Show, New York, NY
Jun Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC 10B [Uchida Yoko's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Sony formally introduces the SOBAX ICC-500 hybrid circuit electronic calculator [Sony's First Marketed Electronic Calculator]
Jun Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-400, identical to the ICC-500, omitting Sum-of-Products function key
Jul Tateisi Electronics Co., completes delveopment of prototype electronic calculator, OMRAC 777
Jul Wang Laboratories begins publishing "The Wang Laboratories Programmer" magazine
David Shapiro leaves Mathatronics
North American Rockwell sets up facility for producing MOS integrated circuits for military use (under Autonetics Division)
Jul Wang Labs announces the Model 370 programmer for the 300-Series calculator
Aug Sharp introduces the Compet 32 (CS-32A) [Sharp's first use of Magnetic Core Memory and Multiplexed Display]
Aug SCM introduces the Cogito 566 PR, a rebadged Diehl Combitron [24-Aug]
Aug Wang Labs first publically demonstrates the 370 Programmer at WESCON Los Angeles
Aug Wang Laboratories goes public on New York Stock Exchange
Sep First shipment of Sharp Compet 32 (CS-32A) calculators bound for US market stopped at request of Mitsubishi (due to use of its ICs in the calculator) over fears of TI patent infringement litigation
Sep Casio forms OEM relationship with Sperry Remington
Sep Canon introduces the magnetic drum-based Canon 167
Oct Show of Japanese Business Machines at Japanese Trade Center, Chicago, IL (Oct. 9th-13th)
Oct 9th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) Show, New York, NY (Oct. 23rd-27th)
Oct Friden introduces the 1217 electromechanical printing calculator to the US market
Oct 7th Annual Japan Business Machine Show, Tokyo, Japan (Oct. 25th-28th)
Sumlock Comptometer adds Wanderer(Nixdorf) Conti electronic calculators to their line of calculators
Oct Masatoshi Shima transfers to Calculator Design Division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Oct Casio AL-1000 transistorized calculator debuts [Casio's First Programmable Electronic Calculator]
Nov NEREM show, Boston War Memorial Auditorium [Nov 1-3]
Nov Cintra founded by Irwin Wunderman in his garage, manufacturing digital photonic measurement instruments
Nov Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. registers trade name "Denon"
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces the Busicom 141 transistorized calculator, a "downsized" version of the Busicom 161
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM) introduces the Busicom 162(NCR 18-2) calculator, which was eventually marketed in North America by NCR as the Model 18-2. [NCM's First IC-Based Electronic Calculator]
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces the Busicom 202 CRT-display calculator [Designed by Wyle Laboratories under contract to NCM]
Toshio Iue, Founder/CEO of Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd, steps down, relinquishes CEO role to his brother, Yuro
Nov Monroe/Litton Holds Sales Convention, Diplomat Hotel, Hollywood, Florida [26-Nov to 1-Dec]
Dec Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) introduces Compet 16 (CS-16A) [First use of MOS Integrated Circuits in Production Electronic Calculator]

Jan Sanyo announces entry into electronic calculator marketplace with three machines to debut in early spring
Sharp's Tadashi Sasaki arranges $40M Yen (~$110K US Dollars) "secret" funding to Nippon Calculaing Machine Co. (Busicom)
Feb Friden internally announces the 1150 printing calculator at MSRP of $1,495 [8-Feb]
Mar Hewlett Packard 9100A formally announced [HP's First Electronic Calculator, Revolutionary Capabilities] [11-Mar]
Mar Hewlett Packard 9100 first shown to very limited audience at IEEE Conference in New York [March 18-21]
Mar Dr. An Wang, CEO of Wang Laboratories, given sneak preview of HP 9100 At IEEE Conference in New York by Hewlett Packard founder, Bill Hewlett
Mar Singer and General Precision agree in pricipal to merger deal [26-Mar]
Mar Friden internally announces the 1151 programmable printing desktop calculator at MSRP of $1,795
Mar Wang introduces Model 380 programmer keyboard/display unit for 300-Series calculators at New York IEEE Exposition [20-Mar]
Apr ElectroTechnical Industries (ETI) established (not to be confused with Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory) for Electronic Calculator development & manufacturing, associated wtih Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) Tokyo, Japan
Apr Canon Canola 161S and Canola 163 calculator announced in Japan [1-Apr]
Apr Burroughs signs agreement with Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) for Sharp to design & manufacture calculators for Burroughs
Apr Harold Koplow begins employment at Wang Laboatories as calculator application programmer (Wang 300-Series)
Apr Agreement forged for Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI, later Nixdorf) to purchase business-machines division of Wanderer-Werke AG for 17.2M DM
Apr Sanyo introduces ICC-141 and ICC-161 calculators using MOS shift register IC made by Philco-Ford (formerly General Micro-electronics)
Apr Sanyo introduces ICC-121 calculator
Apr Wang Laboratories announces the 379-5 Output Writer, a modified IBM Selectric typewriter used for programmed output from the 370 Programming Keyboard
May Wang 362E introduced
May General Precision Equipment Company and Singer Company announce merger [10-May]
May Casio introduces the Model 152 calculator
May Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) travels to US seeking IC house to manufacture LSI ICs for miniaturized electronic calculator
Uchika Yoko becomes exclusive distributor of Seiko electronic calculators in Japanese market
David Takagishi joins Cintra as electronics engineer on design team for the Cintra 909 calculator
Computer Design Corp. founded, spin-off of Wyle Laboratories Calculator Division
Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. and NCM/Busicom joint venture formed to market Busicom-brand calculating machines in US
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of gas-discharge display devices
Facit AB builds a large new calculator factory in Sweden
Wang Labs rattled by rumor that Digital Equipment Corp. is working on developing a "Desk Calculator". The "calculator" actually turned out to be the PDP-11 16-bit mini-computer
Jun Ray Holt & Steve Geller begin secret development of CADC (Central Air Data Computer) for new Navy F-14A "Tom Cat" Jet Fighter
Sharp introduces the Compet 22 (Model CS-22A)
Dr. An Wang granted US Patent on logarithm-generating circuits
Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) and Rockwell/Autonetics (later, Rockwell Semiconductor) form LSI calculator chipset development alliance
Jul Compucorp incorporated as business unit of Computer Design Corporation, with Elmer Easton(President), Norman J. Grannis(VP), Roger Keenan(Finance), Kas Terhorst(Director) and Cynthia Wells(Secretary) as principals [5-Jul]
Jul Singer Corp. acquires General Precision Equipment Corp.
Jul Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore incorporate "N M Electronics", the beginnings of Intel
Jul Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-600 calculator
Jul Canon introduces the Canola 161S and Canola 163 calculators in USA
Jul Wang Laboratories closes purchase of Philip Hankins, Inc. (PHI). Dave Moros from PHI instrumental in development of future Wang Calculator architectures
Jul Singer completes merger with Librascope, Inc.
Jul Hitachi introduces the KK-22 (ELCA-22) calculator. Sold by Friden as the Friden EC-1113
Jul NCR signs agreement with Nippon Calculating Machine Co. for sale of Busicom-made calculators under NCR brand name
Brother Industries acquires UK-based Jones Sewing Machine Co.
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. creates Business Computer Corp., a.k.a. Busicom USA, for US market expansion
Aug Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D calculator debuts in Japan utilizing Rockwell Autonetics-manufactured LSI chipset [First mass-market LSI (Large Scale Integration) Calculator]
Aug NCM/Busicom introduces the Model 162C electronic calculator
Sep Denon announces the DEC-61A4 electronic calculator [Denon's First Electronic Calculator]
Sep Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) introduces the EP-101 digital printer
Sep Hewlett Packard 9100A documented in HP's corporate technology publication, the Hewlett Packard Journal September, 1968
Sep Wang Laboratories stock begins trading on the American Stock Exchange [10-Sep]
Oct Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) formally closes purchase of business machines division Wanderer-Werke AG [1-Oct]
Oct Wang Laboratories introduces 360SE electronics package [Last Wang 300-Series Calculator]
Oct Computer Design Corp. [CDC] and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. [NCM] forge agreement for CDC to develop advanced calculators for NCM
Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) renamed Nixdorf Computer AG
Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) meets with Robert Noyce and Bob Graham (Intel) and Yoshio Kojima (NCM/Busicom)
Victor Comptometer acquires exclusive distribution rights from Nixdorf for sale of the Wanderer Conti as the Victor 1500
Nov Tateisi Electronics Co. establishes trade name of OMRON Tateisi Electronics Co.
Dec Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC-22B electronic calculator
Dec Passing of Kiyoshi Ichimura, Founder of Ricoh [16-Dec]

Mostek opens for business in Worcester, Massachusetts
Jan Singer Co. board of directors changes status of Friden, Inc. from fully-owned subsidiary, to the Friden Division of Singer Co. [Jan 1]
Jan Wang introduces 200-Series "business" calculators based on 300-Series machines
Jan Sony introduces the ICC-500A, a cost-reduced version of the ICC-500
Jan Wang announces CP-2 Card Programmer for 200/300-Series calculators
Feb U.S. Patent 3,430,095 granted to to Jack J. Bialik(7/20/1924-1/4/2010), Dale P. Masher(4/14/1929-3/30/2014),
  and Bill W. Stevens, all of SRI, for display subsystem developed for Friden EC-130 electronic calculator [25-Feb]
Feb The Singer Co. formally adopts a new logo for Friden, with a larger SINGER with "FRIDEN DIVISION" in smaller letters beneath
Feb Friden announces market availability of the Hitachi-made Friden 1113
Feb Wang 700 calculator announced, not actually available until early 1970
Feb Busicom (ElectroTechnical Industries) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed Busicom 207 and 2017 punched-card programmable electronic calculators
Mar North American Rockwell (Autonetics) receives $30M from Sharp for LSI Calculator IC Development
Mar Wang Laboratories, Inc., acquires Medical Systems and Data Corp. of Boston, MA
Bob Cole(Fairchild) and Don Borror(GM-e/Philco Microelectonics) start up IC mask making & foundry Cartesian, Inc.
Amidst increasing competition, IME begins phasing out production of its electronic calculators, closes factory
R.ohm (Toyo Electronics Industry, Japan) begins development of Integrated Circuit technology
North American Philips Corp. formed as merger of Consolidated Electric Co., and North American Philips Co., Inc.
ISE Electronics licenses Vacuum Fluorescent Display technology to Futaba Denshi
Mar Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces prototype calculator that becomes the Omron 1210
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D introduced in US at New York IEEE trade show
Apr VEB Kombinat Robotron formed as a large conglomerate of German Office & Data Processing Companies [1-Apr]
Apr General Digital Founded by Alvin Phillips (later Western Digital) [23-Apr]
Apr First operating prototype of AMI-Fabricated MOS LSI Microprocessor Chipset for US Navy F-14A Tom Cat Fighter Jet Control System (CADC)
Apr Provisional agreement between Intel and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM) signed for Intel to develop complex calculator chipset for NCM
Apr SCM Cogito 414 electronic calculator introduced [23-Apr]
May Friden announces the Friden 1160 Electronic Calculator to its salesforce [20-May]
May Wang introduces model 301 Column Printer for Wang 200/300-Series calculators
May Uchida Yoko exits desktop electronic calculator marketplace after only 2 years
May Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) shows revolutionary EP-101 printer at 38th Business Show in Tokyo
May Casio introduces the Casio 121-A/AS-A calculator
May Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Founded in Sunnyvale, CA
Jun Barry Wright Corp. announces negotiations to sell Mathatronics division to a small investment group
Jun Project to develop what is arguably the first MOS LSI Microprocessor Chipset (3-chip), the CADC (Central Air Data Computer), Fabricated by AMI, used in US Navy F-14A Tom Cat Fighter is completed
Jun SCM Introduces the 1016PR Programmable Calculator, $2,495 [18-Jun]
Jun Sony introduces the ICC-510 Electronic Calculator
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. forges secret agreement with Wyle Laboratories for development of Large Scale Integration IC-based electronic calculator chipset (before engaging Intel)
Jun The Friden division of Singer Co. announces it will build a new plant for electronic calculators in Albuquerque, NM
Jun M. Shima, H. Masuda, and S. Takayama from Nippon Calculating Machine Co. visit Intel
  concerning development of proposed printing calculator chipset MOS LSI ICs from Busicom logic design
Jun Annual Consumer Electronics Show, New York Hilton Hotel [Jun 28-Jul 1]
Jul Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo, passes away [16-Jul]
Jul Dictaphone Corp. announces entry into the electronic calculator business, marketing two calculators manufactured by Sanyo and badged as Dictaphone [29-Jul]
Aug Introduction of the Monroe 820 CRT-display electronic calculator [Monroe's First IC-Based Calculator]
Aug Sanyo reaches licensing agreement with General Instruments to import and later manufacture MOS LSI calculator ICs
Aug Founding of Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) by Ed Roberts and three other partners
Aug Hitachi introduces the KK-24 (ELKA-24) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1114
Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 100,000 unit mark
Victor Comptometer sells its electronics division to Nixdorf Computer
Aug WESCON show, San Francisco
Aug Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) shows EP-101 drum printer at WESCON show in San Francisco
Canon Camera Co., Inc. changes name to "Canon, Inc."
Sep Masatoshi Shima(Nippon Calculating Machine/Busicoom) returns to Intel concerning calculator chipset development
Sep Intel engineers propose a single-chip general purpose CPU as an alternative to
  Nippon Calculating Machine Co. multi-chip CPU core for calculator chipset
Sep Intel introduces its first static 256-bit MOS Random Access Memory IC, the 1101
Sep Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces production version of the Omron 1210 [Omron's First Electronic Calculator]
William Kahn, Roy Reach (both founders) leave Mathatronics
Oct Sony announces it will demonstrate its first programmable electronic calculator, the SOBAX ICC-2500, at BEMA show [22-Oct]
Oct 11th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) show, New York, October 26-30
Oct Sony introduces the ICC-610 calculator at BEMA show [26-Oct]
Oct Sony formally introduces its first programmable calculator, the ICC-2500, at BEMA show [26-Oct]
Oct Prototype Wang 700 Advanced Programming Calculator shown at BEMA show
Oct Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi form strategic business alliance
Oct Brother Procal 514 electronic calculator introduced
Oct Hewlett Packard 9100B introduced
Oct Barry Wright Corp. announces failure of deal to sell Mathatronics division to private investors
Oct Canon and Texas Instruments enter into agreement involving development of "Miniature Electronic Calculators"
Oct Nippon Calculating Machine Co. informally accepts Intel's single-chip CPU proposal for its new calculator concept
Fairchild introduces the first static RAM IC, the 4100, holding 256 bits
Nov Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-520 calculator
Nov Hitachi introduces the KK-32 (ELKA-32) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1115
Nov Friden introduces the Hitachi-manufactured Friden EC-1114 electronic calculator [5-Nov]
Nov Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) establishes Sharp Electronics U.K. Ltd. in Manchester, U.K.
Nov Sophisicated 909 Scientist electronic calculator announced by Cintra
Commodore Business Machines moves corporate headquarters to Santa Clara, CA, from Toronto, Canada
Dec Barry Wright Corp. closes down Mathatronics division [30-Dec]
Dec M. Shima of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Busicom) submits instruction set proposal
  for what becomes the Intel 4004 microprocessor, returns to Japan from Intel visit

Jan Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd., changes name to Sharp Corporation [1-Jan]
Jan MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Incorporated
Jan Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces the Omron 1200 electronic calculator [21-Jan]
Jan Denon introduces the DEC-411 electronic calculator
Jan Ricoh Co, Ltd. founds Ricoh of America, a wholly-owned US subsidiary, located in New Jersey
Feb Wang begins regular production of Wang 700-Series calculators
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of Vacuum Fluorescent Display Devices
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. exits calculator market
Feb Friden introduces the Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator [4-Feb]
Feb Formal agreement between Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) and Intel for development of microprocessor for calculator application [6-Feb]
Feb Wang Laboratories announces the Wang 3300 Timeshared Computer System
Mar Busicom submits final instruction set specs to Intel for microprocessor chip
Mar Wang formally introduces the Wang 720A/B Calculators
Mar Sharp QT-8D begins sales in US
Apr Federico Faggin hired away from Fairchild by Intel to work on "Busicom Project" (calculator chipset) for Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom)
Apr M. Shima of Busicom returns to Intel to find progress calculator chipset lagging behind his expectations. Joins development team and drives forward progress [7-Apr]
Apr LED (and later, calculator) manufacturer Litronix founded by George E. Smith and six associates
Apr Friden begins customer deliveries of the Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator
Apr Canon announces the Canon Pocketronic
Apr Bill Hewlett and Barney Oliver gift a HP 9100 calculator to noted author Arthur C. Clarke
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed 207P and 2017P versions of the May Casio establishes its own US sales company, Casio, Inc., in New York
May Sanyo announces the ICC-0082D "mini-calculator" with rechargeable NiCd battery and Nixie tube display using 4-chip LSI chipset made by General Instruments in US
May Mostek's VP of Marketing visits Nippon Calculating Machine Co. concerning development of calculator on a chip
Hewlett Packard Corp. ordered to pay Olivetti $900,000 in royalties for violation of Olivetti's Programma 101 patents by HP 9100A/9100B calculators
AMI moves IC manufacturing facilities to Pocatello, Idaho
Jun Denon introduces the DEC-521 electronic calculator
Jun Canon begins sales of the Canon Pocketronic in the US
Jun Wang introduces 100-Series calculators
Jul North American Rockwell (NAR) spins NAR Microelectronics Inc. out of is Autonetics division
Aug Friden introduces the Friden EC-1116 electronic calculator [5-Aug]
Friden's new electronic calculator manufacturing plant in Albuquerque, NM up and running
Aug Logic simulation of 4004 microprocessor completed, only one logic error found
Aug Busicom announces prototype Model 141-DA using Japanese-produced LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) [Never went to production]
Aug WESCON Trade Show, Los Angeles, California (Aug. 25-28)
Monroe signs OEM agreement with Computer Design Corp. to market calculators designed and built by Computer Design Corporation
Sep Sony Corporation shares listed on New York Stock Exchange
Sep Casio publically traded on secondary market of Tokyo Stock Exchange
Intel produces the first 1K-bit dynamic RAM IC, the 1103
Oct Canon Pocketronic begins sales in US [First LSI "Handheld", Rechargeable Battery Powered, Printing Calculator. TI Cal-Tech was the prototype
Nov Busicom's Masatoshi Shima returns to Japan after working with Intel to design 4004 microprocessor
Nov Electronic Arrays announces six-chip calculator (S-100) chipset for $158.46 [First Generally Available Calculator Chipset]
Nov Hewlett Packard begins design of HP-35 Handheld Scientific calculator
Nov Mostek successfully tests first one-chip calculator IC developed for Busicom
Nov International Calculating Machines founded as subsidiary of Electronic Arrays
Nov Canon L-121 introduced [Canon's First MOS LSI-based Calculator]
Nov Casio 121-B/AS-B calculator introduced
Dec U.S. Patent 3,546,676 granted to Robert Ragen of Friden, for design of Friden EC-130
Dec Wang Laboratories common stock begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange
Industrial Research Magazine names the Cintra 909 as one of its "IR 100" most innovative products of 1970

Jan Hewlett Packard introduces instrumentation system for 9100A and 9100B calculators
Jan Mostek begins volume production of "Calculator on a Chip", the MK6010, for Busicom [First Single-Chip Calculator IC]
Jan Sanyo introduces redesign of the ICC-0081D calculator using 7-Segment Gas-discharge Display tubes instead of Nixie tubes
Jan Sanyo introduces the ICC-0082 calculator with built-in power supply/charger versus external power pack of ICC-0081D
Jan Sharp EL-8 introduced
Jan Busicom completes breadboard prototype of printing calculator based on logic design of Intel's proposed microprocessor
Jan Busicom introduces first "pocket" calculator using Mostek single-chip calculator IC (Busicom "Handy" LE-120A)
Intel begins pilot production of 4004 microprocessor and peripheral chips for Busicom
Jan Wang announces 500-Series calculators
Prototype of Intel 4004-based printing calculator (without chips) completed by Busicom
Feb Philco-Ford announces shutdown of microelectronics division
Feb First operating Intel 4004 microprocessor
International Calculating Machines introduces the ICM 816 calculator using the Electronics Arrays S-100 six-chip calculator chipset
Feb Canon Pocketronic begins sales in US
Feb Sharp EL-8 begins sales in US
Mar Michael Cochran Leaves Cintra to join Texas Instruments
Mar Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi dissolve business partnership
Mar Wang Labs delivers first 3300 Time Shared Computer System (Weymouth South High School, Weymouth, MA)
Remains of Mathatronics liquidated
Victor 1800-Series calculators introduced
Muldivo goes out of business
Compucorp division of Computer Design Corp. formed
Hewlett Packard 9810A introduced
Apr Busicom receives first chips from Intel for prototype printing calculator
Apr First operating prototype of Busicom printing calculator using 4004 microprocessor [Became Busicom 141PF]
Apr Introduction of the Omron 800 calculator [New Low Price Benchmark for AC-Powered Desktop]
SCM introduces the "Marchant I" (also known as the F-80) battery-operated portable Nixie Tube display calculator utilizing 2-chip LSI chipset
May Busicom begins sale of LE-120A calculator using Mostek's Single-Chip calculator IC [First Handheld, Single-Chip Calculator, LED-Display Calculator]
May Intel and Busicom Corp. renegotiate 4004 Microprocessor contract
May Casio introduces the AS-C
May Tektronix announces purchase of Cintra, Inc. from Physics International [7-May]
May Jack Murdock, co-founder of Tektronix, passes away in mishap with his seaplane [16-May]
Jun Sharp begins sale of the EL-8M, follow-on to the EL-8 which adds memory function
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 700C and 720C calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 708 Memory Expansion Controller for 700-Series calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces 709 Dual Cassette Drive peripheral for the 700-Series calculators
Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. begins production of SANAC magnetic card reader/writer device
General Digital changes name to Western Digital
Jul Purchase of Cintra, Inc. by Tektronix is completed
Jul Micheal Cochran validates proper function of first TMS-100 microcontroller-based calculator chip [4-Jul]
Jul Tektronix announces the rebadged Cintra 909 and 911 calculators as the Tek 909 and Tek 911
Aug Tektronix announces price reduction and upgraded memory in Tek 909 and 911 calculators
Aug AMI announces agreement to acquire majority interest in desktop calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc. of Cupertino, CA
Sep Texas Instruments announces the TMS1802, TI's First "Calculator on a Chip" [17-Sep]
Sep Masatoshi Shima leaves Busicom to work for Ricoh
Sep Intel successfully negotiates removal of exclusive sales agreement with Busicom on Intel 4004
Sep Omron inks $2M contract with Nortec Electronics Corp. for development of MOS/LSI chipset for low-cost "personal" calculators
Sep Casio AS-8A introduced
Sep Sony introduces the Sobax ICC-88 Rechargeable Portable Calculator using Electronic Arrays chipset
Sep AMI completes acquisition of calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc.
Sep Bowmar/Ali, Inc. ships their first pocket-sized calculator, the 901B, utilizing TI calculator-on-a-chip
Oct Busicom introduces the Model 141PF printing desktop calculator [First calculator to utilize single-chip microprocessor (Intel 4004)]
Nov Masatoshi Shima Leaves Ricoh to go to work for Intel at request of Bob Noyce
Nov Popular Electronics publishes article introducing MITS' $179 calculator kit, the MITS 816, based on Electronic Arrays chipset
Nov Intel announces general sales of 4004 microprocessor [15-Nov]
Dec Wang Laboratories announces Wang 600-Series calculators
Total number of electronic calculators in Soviet Union (USSR): 45,000

Jan General Electric closes down its integrated circuit business
Jan Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-35 handheld scientific calculator [World's First Handheld Scientific Electronic calculator]
Feb Rapid Data Systems & Equipment, Ltd. introduces the Rapidman 800 pocket calculator
Feb Wang Labs announces SWAP calculator user group (implementation in June '72)
Feb Wang Labs announces Model 711 I/O Writer
Feb Casio fx-1 introduced [Casio's first scientific electronic calculator]
Apr Varadyne, Inc. spins off Veradyne Systems unit which manufacturers electronic calculator equipment
Apr Texas Instruments opens calculator manufacturing plant in Fort Walton Beach, Florida
Apr Intel announces the 8008 microprocessor chip, based on 1201 microprocessor developed for Computer Terminal Corp.
Apr Commodore Business Machines provides guarantee of bank loan for Varadyne Systems, Inc.
Apr Commodore Business Machines obtains option to acquire 75-90% of Varadyne Systems, Inc. from Varadyne, Inc.
Facit AB begins large scale layoffs as calculator business suffers major losses
Diehl Corp. ends production of electromechanical calculators
May Casio AS-8D Introduced
Jun Wang Laboratories implements "SWAP" (Soceity for Wang Applications and Programs) User Group
Jun MITS Model 1440 calculator introduced in Radio-Electronics magazine
Hewlett Packard 9820A introduced
Hewlett Packard 9830A introduced [First desktop calculator to use the BASIC computer programming language]
Production of Curta calculators ends
Aug Casio Mini introduced [New Low Price Benchmark for Four Function Handheld]
Aug Intel introduces the 8008 Microprocessor [24-Aug] [Intel's Second Microprocessor]
Aug Rockwell Microelectronics introduces the PPS-4 microprocessor [Rockwell's First Microprocessor]
Aug Sharp EL-801 handheld calculator introduced [First use of CMOS calculator on a chip made by Toshiba]
Rockwell International acquires Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. and Sumlock Comptometer
Sep Rockwell International acquires Unicom Systems, Inc. from American Microsystems (AMI)
Sep Texas Instruments announces entry into the electronic calculator marketplace with the TI-2500, TI 3000, and TI 3500 calculators. [20-Sep]
Facit AB and subsdiary Addo AB acquired by consumer and industrial products conglomerate Electrolux
Wang 400-Series calculators introduced

Feb Hewlett Packard HP-80 introduced [First Financial Handheld]
Feb Casio introduces the Casio "Mini", Model CM-601
Mar MITS 7440 calculator introduced in Radio Electronics magazine
Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (BEMA) becomes CBEMA, adding computer manufacturers to the mix
North American Rockwell and Rockwell Manufacturing merge to form Rockwell International
May Hewlett Packard markets, through Japanese subsidiary Yokogawa Hewlett-Packard, a ROM block for the HP 9810 calulator that prints in Japanese Katakana character set
May Sharp introduces the Elsi Mate EL-805 [15-May]  [First Battery-Powered "Pocket" Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Calculator]
May Sony announces its exit from electronic calculator market [31-May]
May Hewlett Packard HP-46 introduced
May Wang Laboratories begins shipping 2200 computer
May Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) Introduces the 324 Scientist and 344 Statistician "portable microcomputers" (Compucorp's term for portable programmable calculators)
May Hewlett Packard HP-45 introduced
Jul Sony terminates manufacture of electronic calculators [31-Jul]
Aug Tektronix Model 21 and 31 calculators introduced. Tek 21 priced at $1,850, and Tek 31 at $2,850 [2-Aug]
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the 9821A calculator for $4,975 in base form

Jan Hewlett Packard HP-65 introduced [First Programmable Handheld]
Feb Singer/Friden announces the 1202 and 1203 calculators
Feb Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) files for bankruptcy
Feb Tektronix Model 21 and 31 calculators launched in UK
Mar Tektronix announces the 31/53 Instrumentation System based on its Model 31 Calculator
Apr Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor
Jun U.S. Patent 3,819,921 granted to Texas Instruments' Jack Kilby & team for TI Cal-Tech calculator
Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) sells 24% share of voting stock to Litton Industries
Jul Litton Industries loans Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) $1M
Aug Tektronix announces Model 152 BCD Interface for Model 31 calculator
Aug Computer Design Corporation (Compcorp) reaches exclusivity agreement with Litton Industries [2-Aug]
Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes ten million unit mark
Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. purchases rights to the "Busicom" brand name from Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Motorola introduces the 6800 microprocessor
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. and Busicom Corp. cease operations after bankruptcy
MOS Technology founded by ex-Motorola engineers
National Cash Register Co. changes name to "NCR Corp."
Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) shuts down its dealer/distributor network and OEM agreements

Jan Texas Instruments shutters Fort Walton Beach, Florida calculator plant, citing economic conditions [10-Jan]
Feb Rockwell announces intention to close down calculator subsidiary Unicom Systems
Feb Bowmar Instrument Corp. files for Chapter XI bankruptcy [10-Feb]
Mar Aquisition of Signetics by Philips announced
Apr Bill Gates & Paul Allen found Micro-soft [4-Apr]
Remains of Computer Design Corp. absorbed into Monroe International division of Litton Industries
May Tektronix announces the Model E-31 Calculator (reduced cost version of the Model 31)
Jun Acquisition of Signetics by Philips via US Philips Trust Corp. completed
Jun Bowmar terminates production of calculators
Jun Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. launches the Epson brand name
Jun Canon introduces the SX-310 programmable calculator
Singer Business Machines division shut down
Facit AB subsidiary of Electrolux closes its US calculator production unit, Lago Calc, Inc. in Canoga Park, CA
Tektronix shuts down calculator business unit
Dec Texas Instruments' Cal-Tech calculator accepted for exhibit by the Smithsonian Institution

Jan Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 4900 Advanced Programmable Calculator
Jan Rockwell International begins phaseout of Sumlock Anita division in UK
Feb Hewlett Packard announces HP 9825A calculator
Friden closes down electronic calculator plant in Albuquerque, NM
Facit AB begins phaseout of direct sales force for Office Products
Facit AB closes office product production factory in Gothenburg, Sweden
Monroe Division of Litton Industries ceases business relationship with Computer Design Corp.
Texas Instruments announces the SR-60 calculator
Sep Commodore Business Machines acquires IC manufacturer MOS Technology for $800K
Oct Computer Design Corp. announces bankruptcy filing [22-Oct]
Dec Singer closes down Friden Division, marking the official end of Friden

Mar Agreement reached between Victor Comptometer Corp. and Walter Kidde Co. for Kidde to acquire Victor
Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-01 Wrist Instrument [First wrist-worn calculator/watch/calendar/stopwatch]
Jun Rockwell International exits the calculator business
Facit(Electrolux) exits the calculator business
MITS sold to Pertec Computer Corporation
Oct Texas Instruments introduces the SR-60A programmable calculator
Victor United spins off business machines division as "Victor Business Products"

Commodore quits producing calculators
Dr. Ge Yao Chu, Senior VP and Board Member, Retires from Wang Laboratories
Jun Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (NEC) announces intent to acquire California-based chipmaker Electronic Arrays, Inc. for approx. $8.6M [16-Jun]
Oct Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International, passes away [16-Oct]
Dec Sale of Electronic Arrays to NEC completed

Mostek purchased by United Technologies Corp.
R.ohm (Toyo Electronics Industry) changes name to ROHM
Fairchild purchased by French conglomerate Schlumberger
Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International, passes away
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the HP-85 desktop computer
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. formally changes name to Toshiba

Sales of Casio electronic calculators exceeds 100-million unit mark
Compucorp rejects $1/share bid by Savin Corp. to acquire the company
Jun Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of Sharp Corp., passes away [24-Jun]
Monroe International changes name to Monroe Systems for Business
Oct Compucorp introduces "Correct'n'Spell" Wordprocessing System, $13,000
Dec Rapid Data Systems & Equipment dissolved [16-Dec]

Financier Bernard Katz acquires majority ownership of Compucorp
Mar Heinz Nixdorf, founder of Nixdorf Computer AG, passes away
May Dr. Stanley P. Frankel, Manhattan Project physicist, and later designer of the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR and the prototype of the Diehl Combitron, passes away [May 2]

Jul Harold Koplow leaves Wang Laboratories over disagreements with President Fred Wang
Victor United & Victor Business Products rejoined, now called "Victor Technologies"
Dr. An Wang retires from active management of Wang Laboratories

Harold Koplow joins computer manufacturer Modular Computer Systems, Inc. (MODCOMP) as VP of Research & Development
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. officially renamed "NEC Corporation"
TI files complaint with US Intl. Trade Commission concerning importation of inexpensive off-shore calculators as violation of Tariff and Patent Law
Sep Compucorp announces plan to purchase 80% stake in Monroe division of Litton Business Systems

Jan Jack Tramiel leaves Commodore, citing "personal reasons" for his departure
Jan Compucorp announces abandonment of plans to purchase majority ownership of Monroe Systems for Business Division of Litton Industries
Jul US Intl. Trade Commission initiates investigation of TI claim of import tariff/patent violation by off-shore (Japan) calculator manufacturers
Aug Compucorp announces promotion of Norman Grannis to Executive VP and COO
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. changes name to Toshiba Corp.
Litton Industries sells Monroe Systems for Business division to Jeffry Picower
Dec Elmer R. Easton steps down as President and CEO of Compucorp
Dec William M. Duke succeeds Elmer Easton as President and CEO of Compucorp

Jan Bernard B. Katz invests $1M in Compucorp, assumes board Vice Chairman of the Board title
Olympia Werke AG is renamed Olympia Aktiengesellschaft
Mar Elmer R. Easton resigns as Chairman of the Board of Compucorp to pursue other business interests
Dr. An Wang (CEO/President of Wang Laboratories) holds secret discussions with ITT regarding possible merger
Jun US Intl. Trade Commission rules no violation of tariff or patent law relating to Texas Instruments' complaint filed in late 1983
Jun Bernard B. Katz resigns from board of directors of Compucorp citing potential conflict of interest
Jul John F. Cunningham resigns as President of Wang Laboratories [19-Jul]
Harold Koplow(after leaving MODCOMP) and Dave Moros, both formerly of Wang Laboratories recruited to Computer Consoles, Inc.
Sep Bernard B. Katz elected Chairman of the Board of Compucorp (only months after having resigned as a director)
Sep Norman Grannis promoted to President and CEO of Compucorp, replacing William Duke
Oct United Technologies announces intent to close down Mostek Corp. subsidiary [17-Oct]

Mar Passing of Heinz Nixdorf due to heart attack suffered at the CeBit Trade Show [17-Mar]
Fairchild Semiconductor purchased by National Semiconductor from Schlumberger
Jun Transitron Electronics Corp. announces it is going out of business [29-Jun]
Elmer R. Easton, former President of Computer Design Corp., founds Three D Graphics Inc.
Sep Burroughs Corp. and Sperry Corp. merge to form Unisys Corp.
Nov Dr. An Wang steps down of President of Wang Laboratories
Nov Dr. An Wang's son, Frederick, named President of Wang Laboratories [19-Nov]
Bell Punch Co., Ltd. ceases business

SGS Thomson purchases chipmaker Mostek

Tadao Kashio steps down as President of Casio
Oct Curt Herzstark, inventor of Curta calculator, passes away [27-Oct]

Apr Konosuke Matsushita, founder of Panasonic, passes away at age 94 [27-Apr]
Aug Frederick Wang, son of founder of Wang Laboratories, Dr. An Wang, resigns as President of Wang Labs [8-Aug]

Siemens acquires majority equity in Nixdorf Computer Inc., to form Siemens Nixdorf Informationsystems AG
Mar Dr. An Wang, founder of Wang Laboratories, passes away due to complications from esophageal cancer [24-Mar]
Jun Robert Noyce, semiconductor technology luminary, passes away at age 62

Jan Founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics, Kazuma Tateisi, Passes Away at 90 Years of Age [12-Jan]
NCR Corp. acquired by AT&T
Mar Dr. Julius J. Muray, Vice President of Cintra, passes away [28-Mar]

Aug Wang Laboratories files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection [18-Aug]

Mar Tadao Kashio, co-founder of Casio, passes away at age 75 [4-Mar]

Mar Commodore's stock falls to $0.75/share, NYSE halts trading of the company's shares
Apr Commodore announces closure and liquidation of the company [29-Apr]

Jan George Robert Stibitz, father of relay computing, passes away [31-Jan]
Apr Remains of Commodore sold to ESCOM, a German computer manufacturer
Nov Passing of Bernard (Barney) Oliver, founding director of HP Laboratories, and project leader for HP 9100 and HP-35 calculators, among other notable achievements. [23-Nov]
Dec Konrad Zuse, electronic computer pioneer, passes away

Mar David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away [26-Mar]

The Old Calculator Museum first appears on the World Wide Web as a Geocities site
May Logicon, Inc. acquired by Northrup Grumman for $750M [5-May]
Aug William S. Burroughs passes away [2-Aug]
Dec Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of Sony, passes away at age 89 [19-Dec]

Facit AB, after numerous breakups and ownership changes, ceases to exist
Sep Public Announcement of formerly secret CADC Microprocessor Chipset used in F-14 Tom Cat Jet Fighter via article in the Wall Steet Journal [22-Sep]
Monroe Systems for Business sells off copier, fax, and shredder businesses to Savin, to focus business purely on calculators

Wang Laboratories acquired by Dutch company Getronics
Oct Akio Morita, co-founder of Sony, passes away at age 78 [3-Oct]

Mar William Burkhart, prolific designer at Monroe Calculating Machine Co., passes away
Sep David Moros, Wang 700 hardware architect and co-inventor of Wang's first Word Processor, passes away from cancer at age 64 [27-Sep]

Jan Bill Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away [12-Jan]
Monroe Systems for Business becomes privately-owned, with HQ in Bristol, PA
Sep John P. Stedman, once VP and Director of Operations at Mathatronics, passes away at age 83 [26-Sep]

Jan Pier Giorgio Perotto, designer of the Olivetti Programma 101, passes away at age of 71 [22-Jan]

Dec Howard Z. Bogert, calculator designer and LSI engineer, passes away at age 68 [28-Dec]

Nov Harold Koplow, developer of microcode for the Wang 700-Series calculators, and later, development of Wang's breakthrough word processing and small office computing systems, passes away at age 64 [4-Nov]

Jun Eiichi Goto, developer of the Parametron, passes away [12-Jun]
Jun Jack Kilby, inventor of the first Integrated Circuit, and leader in the design of the "Cal-Tech" calculator at Texas Instruments, passes away at age 81
Jul Dr. Irwin Wunderman, founder of Cintra, designer of the Cintra 909 and 911 calculators, and noted theoretical mathemetician and physicist, passes away. [July 27]
Jul Hiro Moriyasu, involved in the formation of the Tektronix calculator division with the acquisition of Cintra, passes away at age 70. [July 31]
Dec Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 1-billion unit mark
Dec Sharp Corporation presented with prestigious "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing"

Nov Tektronix, Inc. acquired by Daniher Corporation
Dec AMI Semiconductor acquired by On Semiconductor for approximately $915M in stock

Jan Karl Diehl, son of Diehl Group founders, passes away at age of 100. [19-Jan]
Nov Panasonic and Sanyo annnounce agreement in principle for Panasonic to acquire majority stake in Sanyo [2-Nov]

Apr Hewlett Packard awarded the "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing" award for the company's development of the HP-35 calculator, the first handheld scientific electronic calculator
Jun Don Farina, MOS IC pioneer at Fairchild, General Micro-electronics and others, passes away at age 78 [11-Jun]
Aug Massimo Rinaldi, calculator designer and founder of IME, passes away [16-Aug]
Dec Panasonic acquires majority (50.2%) stake in Sanyo with $4.5 billion investment [21-Dec]

Mar Passing of Jack J. Bialik, project leader at Stanford Research Institute for development of CRT display system for Friden calculator [1-Mar]
Apr Dr. H. Edward Roberts, founder of MITS, passes away at age 68 [1-Apr]
Jul Panasonic announces that it will acquire all remaining shares of Sanyo, making it a wholly-owned subsidiary of Panasonic
Sep Frank Wanlass, CMOS IC Inventor, passes away at 77 years of age

Apr Sanyo Electric Co. becomes wholly-owned subsidiary of Panasonic [1-Apr]
Aug Dr. Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu, co-founder with Dr. An Wang of Wang Laboratories, passes away at age 93 [4-Aug]

Oct Howard Rathbun, Co-Inventor of Monroe EPIC 2000 and EPIC 3000 calculators, passes away at age 82 [23-Oct]

Mar Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. principals file Striking Off (Dissolution) Application for the Company [11-Mar]
Oct Paul G. Allen, Co-Founder of Microsoft, Passes Away at Age 65 [15-Oct]
Aug Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. Ceases Operations, ending legacy of Busicom brand name [16-Aug]

Jan Robert H. Norman, Fairchild Gang-of-Eight Member, GM-e Co-Founder, Nortec Electronics founder, MOS IS Design Genius, Passes away at age 89 [21-Jan]
Apr Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore, passes away at age 83 [8-Apr]

Mar The Old Calculator Museum's exhibit of Wang Laboratories' line of electronic calculators presented at the 2nd annual Vintage Computer Festival-Pacific Northwest held at the Living Computer Museum+Labs in Seattle, WA wins the "Most Interesting Presentation" award. [24-Mar]
Apr Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore, passes away at age 83 [8-Apr]

Feb Katherine Johnson, noted NASA computer(mathematician), passes away at age 101. [24-Feb]

Document Copyright ©1997-2020, Rick Bensene.