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Calculator History Timeline

By Rick Bensene

Last Updated 12/5/2022

This page of the Old Calculator Museum is a timeline of known historical points, people, milestones, and other time-related material relating to calculating machine technology. Also included are some benchmark historical points relating to the early development of individual computing; with timeshared computer systems providing some of the earliest opportunities for students, scientists, and business people to have access to sophisticated computing resources. At around the same time, the arrival of electronic calculators also provided access to personal calculating capabilities in the office or home. Other historical references are included for the early development of the early single-user oriented computers, including early single-user mini-computers, and eventually, the microcomputer.

Most especially, the microprocessor and microcomputer were made possible directly out of the technology created for the electronic calculator. The drive for calculator manufacturers to push the semiconductor manufacturers them to pack more and more circuitry in ever smaller amounts of space, using less electricity, providing more functionality, and perhaps most-importantly, reducing cost, was the force behind the development of digital integrated circuits as the first consumer-based use in electronic calculators. The evolution of this technology eventually, through the desire of a number of calculator companies to produce a calculator that was powered by a simple programmable computer on a chip, led to the development of the microprocessor. Once this happened, making calculators on a chip was not a big deal anymore. The big deal became making ever-more powerful computers on a chip. It was then that microcomputers making personal computers in the home began to appear on the scene.

Note that most of these personal computing developments were made long before the famed IBM PC (incorrectly called the first "Personal Computer" despite its name) or Apple Macintosh came to market. These computers were the beginnings of the true utility of a personal computer, which, over time, have evolved into the personal computing platforms of choice for people all over the world.

These infant personal computing benchmarks are included here simply because the threads of all of these events interrelate in terms of the development of calculating devices intended for use by an individual in home, school, laboratory, research & development/engineering, or office.

This document was created from a huge number of sources that are too vast and gathered over such a long period of time to begin to account for. Some of the information here was gleaned from various online resources such as Wikipedia and BitSavers. A large amount of information was also gathered from vintage periodicals and newspapers, as well as product flyers, marketing materials, and documentation from calculator manufacturers.

Some information is also gathered through interviews with the people involved with the projects to develop various calculating and computing devices at the time. As such, so content in this document is not guaranteed to be 100% accurate in all aspects, as some of the information as based on the memories of people "who were there", whose memories have faded over the years.

There are cases where the definition of terms can be interpreted in different ways, such as when a product is "introduced" versus when it is actually available for sale. In the electronics and computing industry, a product introduction does not necessarily mean that the product can be purchased and delivered at the time of introduction.

All efforts are made to try to assure this document is as accurate as possible, and updates are promptly made when sources of information converge to provide a more accurate dating of a given event. Of course, if anyone reading this material identifies factual errors or any other kind of error such as spelling, punctuation, ordering, or formatting, please let the museum know by clicking the Email button at the top of this page. Reported errors will promptly be investigated and corrected as necessary.

Some information that is presented may inadvertently be in violation of copyright law, as it is very difficult with old periodicals and newspapers to determine the copyright status of material. If a representative of any organization or an individual believes content on the Old Calculator Museum website is in violation of copyright law, please click the EMail button at the top of the page and send a message including the full URL of the item(s), and a claim relating to how the content is in violation of copyright law. Upon review, any information found to be in violation shall promptly be removed from the website.

If you know of historical items relating to the areas outlined above, especially things that have specific dates associated with them, please let us know by clicking the Email button in the navigation bar above. Also, if you know a more specific date for items listed herewith that do not have a specific date listed, please let us know so it can be added.

Thank you,
Rick Bensene, Curator
The Old Calculator Museum


1799
Oct Birth of Hisashige Tanaka, founder of precursor to Toshiba [16-Oct]

1838
Apr Birth of Frank S. Baldwin, prolific and revolutionary calculating machine designer [10-Apr]

1845
Aug Birth of Willgodt T. Odhner, inventor of the pinwheel calculating mechanism [10-Aug]

1851
Isaac Merritt Singer forms I.M. Singer & Company, manufacturing sewing machines

1857
Jan Birth of William S. Burroughs I, founder of American Arithmometer Co. (Precursor to Burroughs Corp.) [28-Jan]

1865
I.M. Singer & Co. changes name to Singer Manufacturing Co.

1872
Apr Passing of Frank S. Baldwin, mechanical calculating machine designer [8-Apr]

1873
Odhner Arithmometer invented in Russia by W.T. Odhner, using Odhner's pinwheel mechanism

1875
Hisashige Tanaka opens telegraph equipment manufacturing factory (Precursor to Toshiba)

1878
Bell Punch Co., Ltd. Incorporated
Aug Birth of Heinrich Diehl, co-founder of Diehl Corp. [3-Aug]

1880
Aug Birth of Margarete Schmidt(Diehl), co-founder of Diehl Corp. [25-Aug]

1881
Kintarō Hattori opens K. Hattori & Co, a clock & jewelry shop in Tokyo, Japan (Precursor to Seiko)
Nov Founder of precursor to Toshiba, Hisashige Tanaka, passes away [7-Nov]

1882
Daikichi Tanaka, apprentice of Hisashige Tanaka, starts Tanaka Engineering Works (Toshiba precursor)

1884
National Cash Register Co. (NCR) founded in Dayton, Ohio by John H. Patterson

1886
Jan American Arithmometer Co. (Precursor to Burroughs) founded in St. Louis, Missouri [21-Jan]
Smith Premier Typewriter Company established by Lyman C. Smith and three of his brothers, Wilbert, Monroe, and Hurlbut (Precursor to Smith Corona)
Carl Walther Company founded, producing firearms

1887
Dorr E. Felt and Robert Tarrant form partnership manufacturing "Comptometer" calculating machines as Felt & Tarrant

1888
Mar Birth of Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International [31-Mar]

1890
Ichisuke Fujioka & Shoichi Miyoshi form Hakunetsusha & Co., Ltd. (later Tokyo Electic Company)

1891
Apr Carl Friden born in Alvesta, Sweden, founder of what became Friden Calculating Machine Co. [11-Apr]
May Gerard Philips founds Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, Holland, making light bulbs (Precursor to Philips Electronics, N.V.) [15-May]
May Japan's Ministry of Communications establishes Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [24-May]

1892
The Spencer Co. (later Philco) founded producing carbon arc lamps

1893
Smith Premier Typewriter Co. joins with Union Typewriter Co., a corporate trust including Remington, Caligraph, Densmore and Yost
Nov Birth of Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of what became Hayakawa Electric (Sharp Corporation) [3-Nov]

1896
Winklhofer & Jaenicke (later, Wanderer-Werke AG) founded in Chemnitz, Germany manufacturing motorcycles
Herman Hollerith founds Tabulating Machine Co. (Precursor to IBM)

1898
Aug Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Nippon Denki Kabushiki-gaishe) established by Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda (Precursor to NEC) [31-Aug]
Sep William S. Burroughs I, founder of Burroughs Corp., passes away [14-Sep]

1899
Jul Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. Incorporated (Precursor to NEC) [17-Jul]

1900
Apr Birth of Kiyoshi Ichimura in Saga Prefecture, Japan. Future founder of Ricoh, Co., Ltd. [4-Apr]
Sep Birth of Kazuma Tateisi, future founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics [20-Sep]

1902
Jan Curt Herzstark, inventor of the Curta calculator, Born in Vienna, Austria [26-Jan]
Sep Heinrich & Margarete Diehl start business as a metal artwork foundry (Beginnings of Diehl Corp.)
Dec Birth of Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. [28-Dec]

1903
Founders of Smith Premier Typewriter Co. quit due to conflicts with Union Typewriter Co., and form L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter Co.
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH (Union Typewriter Co.) established in Berlin (Beginnings of Olympia International)

1904
Jan Royal Typewriter Company founded by Edward B. Hess & Lewis C. Meyers, headquarterd in Brooklyn, NY
Apr Birth of George Robert Stibitz, future Bell Laboratories Computer Researcher & Designer [30-Apr]
American Arithmometer Co. moves from St. Louis to Detroit

1905
Jan American Arithmometer Co. changes name to Burroughs Adding Machine Company [14-Jan]
Sep Willgodt T. Odhner passes away, inventor of Odhner Arithmometer [15-Sep]
Mercedes Büro-Maschinen Werke AG established in Thuringia, Germany

1906
Mar Royal Typewriter Co. introduces its first typewriter, the Royal Standard

1907
May Birth of Karl Diehl, son of Diehl Corp. founders [4-May]

1908
Universal Adding Machine Co. acquired by Burroughs
Apr Birth of Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (later, Sony) [11-Apr]
Kanekichi Yasui establish Yasui Sewing Machine Co. (Precursor to Brother)
Oct Camillo Olivetti founds Ing. G. Olivetti & Co., S.p.A., in Ivrea, Italy, manufacturing typewriters

1909
Burroughs acquires Pike Adding Machine Co.

1910
Nippon Chikuonki Shokai (Japan Recorders Corp.) founded by Frederick Whitney Horne (later, Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd./Denon)
Feb Birth of William B. Shockley, co-inventor of the transistor [13-Feb]
Feb Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd (a.k.a. Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.) founded
Jun Konrad Zuse born in Berlin, Germany [22-Jun]
Sperry Gyroscope Co. founded
Brothers Rodney and Alfred Marchant begin manufacturing calculating machines in Oakland, California
Namihei Odaira founds Hitachi, Ltd, maker of electric motors

1911
Tabulating Machine Co. changes name to Computing, Tabulating and Recording Co. (CTR), later becomes IBM

1912
Muldivo Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. founded in London by Henri Ebstein as a distributor of office machines
N.V. Philips Gloeilampfabrieken Incorporated (Philips)
Apr Jay R. Monroe and Frank Baldwin establish the Monroe Calculator Co. [25-Apr]
Sep David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, born in Pueblo, Colorado [7-Sep]
Sep Tokuji Hayakawa founds metal-working shop in Tokyo, Japan that marks the precursor to Sharp Corp. [15-Sep]

1913
Marchant brothers incorporate calculator business as Marchant Calculating Machine Co.
May Birth of William R. Hewlett, future co-founder of Hewlett Packard [20-May]
Jun Birth of computing visionary and pioneer John Maurice Vincent Wilkes, Dudley, Worchestershire, UK [26-Jul]

1915
Hayakawa Brothers Company established by Tokuji Hayakawa (Precursor to Sharp Corp.)
James Picker Co. founded by James Picker in New York City (later, Picker X-Ray, Picker Corp./Picker Nuclear Division)
May Tadashi Sasaki born in Taiwan [12-May]

1916
National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers founded in Chicago

1917
Nov Tadao Kashio born, Nangoku City, Japan, future co-founder of Casio [26-Nov]

1918
AB Addo founded in Malmo, Sweden by Hugo Agrell
Matsushita Electric Housewares Mfg. Works (Panasonic) founded by Kōnosuke Matsushita
Mar Victor Adding Machine Co. founded in Chicago, IL, by Carl Buehler
May Birth of Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu (Wang Laboratories) [3-May]
May Birth of Richard Phillips Feynman, future Theoretical Physicist, key member of Manhattan Project,
>>>   intuitive mechanical calculator repairman, 1965 Nobel Prize winner, quantum physics theorist [15-May]
Aug Birth of Katherine Johnson, who became one of NASA's
>>>   leading "human computers" (with the help of a Monroe electromechanical calculator) [26-Aug]

1919
Birth of Barney Oliver, RADAR pioneer and later, founding director of Hewlett Packard Laboratories, responsible
>>>   for overseeing development of groundbreaking HP 9100 and HP-35 calculators
Jun Birth of Stanley Frankel, Manhattan Project Physicist, Computer & Calculator designer.
>>>   See exhibit on the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR for more information. [6-Jun]
Jul Birth of Frank S. Wyle, Founder of Wyle Laboratories [23-Jul]
Radio Corporation of America (RCA) established as public company with majority ownership by General Electric
Willard Rockwell forms a company in Wisconsin making truck axle bearings forming the foundation of what becomes Rockwell International
The first Adding Machine from Victor Comptometer, the Model 110, is introduced

1920
Feb An Wang born in Shanghai, China, future founder of Wang Laboratories [7-Feb]

1921
Jan Birth of Akio Morita, co-founder of Sony [26-Jan]
Mitsubishi Electric Corp. formed as spinoff of Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co.
Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Co. purchased by Burroughs

1922
AB Åtvidabergs Industrier founded in Sweden by Elof Ericsson (becomes Facit AB)
Laurence Marshall and Vannevar Bush are founders of American Appliance Co. (becomes Raytheon)

1923
Dictaphone Corp. formed out of Columbia Gramophone Co.
Sep Hayakawa Brothers Company facilities destroyed by Great Kanto Earthquake and subsequent fires
Nov Birth of Jack Kilby, inventor of the first experimental Integrated Circuit
Dec Birth of Árpád Klatsmányi in Budapest, Hungary, the father of digital computing in Hungary, and designer of the Hunor 131, (Hungary's first desktop electronic calculator) [20-Dec]

1924
Birth of Yoshio Kojima (Future President of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
K. Hattori & Co. begins selling clocks under the Seiko brand name
Carl Walther Company begins manufacture and sale of calculating machines
Sep Tokuji Hayakawa opens rebuilt metal-working business in Osaka, Japan, as Hayakawa Metal Laboratories [1-Sep]
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. listed on New York Stock Exchange
Computing, Tabulating, and Recording Co. changes name to International Business Machines (IBM)

1925
Due to a name clash, American Appliance Co. changes name to Raytheon Co.
Apr Frank S. Baldwin, calculator designer at Monroe, passes away [8-Apr]
Matsushita Communication Industrial Co., Ltd. (Panasonic) registers "National" brand name for consumer products marketed in Japan
Apr Heinz Nixdorf born in Paderborn, Germany [9-Apr]

1926
L.C. Smith & Bros. and Corona Typewriter merge to become Smith Corona
Oct Royal Typewriter Co. produces its one millionth typewriter
Nov Kanekichi Yasui, founder of Yasui Sewing Machine Co. passes away
Nov Masayoshi Yasui, son of founder Yasui Sewing Machine Co. succeeds his father as CEO of the company
Yasui Sewing Machine Co. renamed Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co.

1927
Remington Typewriter Co. and Rand Kardex merge to form Remington Rand
Mar William B. Hugle, future founder of Hugle International, Siliconix, and others, born [30-Mar]
Mar Birth of Robert H. Norman, Electronics Engineer & Businessman (General Micro-electronics, Nortec Electronics) [24-Mar]
Matsushita begins marketing bicycle lamps in Japan under the "National" brand
Remington Rand purchases Powers Accounting Machine Co.
Dec Birth of Robert Noyce, inventor of the first practical Integrated Circuit, and co-founder of Integrated Electronics (Intel) [12-Dec]

1928
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. Ltd. founded in Osaka, Japan
Brand name "Brother" registered by Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co.
Jul Birth of Robert A. Ragen, architect of the Friden EC-130 electronic calculator [23-Jul]
Sep Paul Galvin founds Galvin Manufacturing Corp., in Chicago, Illinois (Precursor to Motorola)

1929
Jan Birth of Gordon E. Moore, Co-Founder of Intel, and creator of "Moore's Law" [3-Jan]
Jan Birth of Kazuo Kashio, co-founder of Casio Computer Co., Ltd. [9-Jan]
Feb Birth of Massimo Rinaldi, founder of Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) and designer/patent holder of early IME Calculators [21-Feb]
Apr Birth of Dale Perry Masher, co-designer at SRI of display subsystem for Friden 130 [14-Apr]
Carl Friden leaves as head of design department of Marchant Calculating Machine Co.
National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers renamed to Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Dec Idek Tramielski (Jack Tramiel) Born in Lodz, Poland (founder of Commodore) [13-Dec]

1930
May Geophysical Service founded by John C. Karcher and Eugene McDermott. (Precursor to Texas Instruments)
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH moves from Berlin to Erfürt, Germany
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH renamed to "Europa Schreibmaschinen AG", creates the brand name "Olympia" for their typewriters
Dorr Eugene Felt, co-founder of Felt & Tarrant, passes away
Nov Birth of James (Phil) Ferguson, co-founder of General Micro-electronics [18-Nov]
Dec Birth of Pier Giorgio Perotto, designer of the Olivetti Programma 101 programmable electronic calculator [24-Dec]

1931
Jan Birth of Eiichi Goto, inventor of Parametron [22-Jan]
Mar Julius J. Muray, (VP of Cintra) Born in Hungary [22-Mar]
Apr Irwin Wunderman (founder of Cintra) born [24-Apr]
Jun Birth of Don E. Farina, MOS IC Pioneer [3-Jun]

1932
Olivetti makes first public stock offering
Carl Buehler, founder of Victor Adding Machine Co., passes away
Sep Birth of Howard Rathbun, Co-Inventor of Monroe EPIC 2000 and EPIC 3000 calculators with Mark Pivovonsky. US Patent 3,328,763 [24-Sep]

1933
Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) established (Precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Mar Birth of Atsushi Asada, visionary engineer behind development of Electronic Calculators at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Birth of William Kahn, designer of Mathatronics Mathatron calculator
May Friden Calculating Machine, Co. founded by Carl Friden with $52,000 in capital
May Future inventor of CMOS IC technology, Frank Wanlass, born in Thatcher, Arizona [17-May]
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. Co. founded by Kazuma Tateisi, Osaka Japan (becomes OMRON Corp.) [10-May]
Sperry Corp. formed

1934
Vacuum Tube manufacturer Litton Industries founded by Charles Litton Sr.
Yasui Brothers Sewing Machine Co. renamed Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co.
Barry Wright Corp. founded (later purchased Mathatronics, Inc.)

1935
IBM announces the 601 Multiplying Punch (electro-mechanical punched-card calculator)
May Hayakawa Metal Industry Institute Co., Ltd. incorporated from Hayakawa Metal Laboratories, Tokuji Hayakawa Founder & President (Future Sharp Corp.) [1-May]
May Birth of Howard Zabriskie Bogert, calculator designer & LSI engineer [5-May]
Jun Fujitsu founded as manufacturing arm of Fuji Electric Ltd., building telephone exchange-related equipment

1936
Feb Riken Kankoshi Co., Ltd. founded by Kiyoshi Ichimura as spinoff of Rikagaku Kogyo (Precursor to Ricoh Co., Ltd.) [6-Feb]
May General Precision Equipment Corp. founded in New York, NY [30-May]
Hayakawa Metal Industry Institute Co., Ltd. changes name to Hayakawa Industrial Co., Ltd. (Future Sharp Corp.)
Union Schreibmaschinen AG renamed Olympia Büromaschinen Werke AG (Olympia Office Machine Works)
Friden Calculating Machine, Co., moves to San Leandro, California

1937
Librascope Inc., Glendale, CA, founded by Mr. Lewie Imm, developing & operating theater equipment
Aug Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. Incorporated (Precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Oct Marcian (Ted) Hoff, designer of the first single-chip microprocessor, born in Rochester, New York
Nov Proposal for conceptual computing machine that became Harvard Mark I presented to IBM by Howard Aiken

1938
Konrad Zuse(6/22/1910-12/18/1995) completes the mostly mechanical V1 (later known as Z1), prototype of a programmable calculating machine using binary elements
Mar Riken Kankoshi Co. Ltd. changes name to Riken Optical Co. Ltd. (Later Ricoh Co., Ltd.)
Sep Project to develop Bell Labs' (George Stibitz-designed) relay-based Complex Number Calculator approved
Nov Heinrich Diehl (founder of Diehl Corp.) passes, son Karl assumes presidency of company [7-Nov]
Dec Incorporation of Geophysical Service, Inc. (Precursor to Texas Instruments)
Dec Lee Loren (Buff) Boysel born in Detroit, MI [31-Dec] [Fairchild MOS LSI Disruptive Force, Developed First Single Chip Microprocessor Core]

1939
Jan Hewlett Packard founded by Bill Hewlett & David Packard in Palo Alto, California USA
Feb Funding for what becomes the IBM Harvard Mark I electromechanical computer project approved
Tokyo Electric Co. and Shibaura Engineering Works Co., Ltd. merge to form Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Later, Toshiba)
Apr Construction of the Bell Labs Model 1 Relay Complex Number Calculator begins
Clary Corp. founded by Hugh L. Clary
Geophysical Service Inc.(GSI) changes name to Coronado Corp., GSI continues as subsidiary
Jun Construction of Bell Laboratories' relay-based Complex Number Calculator begins
General Instrument founded in Horsham, Pennsylvania
Oct Bell Laboratories' relay-based (~425 Relays) "Complex Number Calculator" completed, cost, ~$20,000 [First Relay-Based Calculator]

1940
The Spencer Co. changes its name to Philco Corp., using the brand name it had been marketing radios under since the 1930's
Jul Clive Marles Sinclair born in Ealing, England (Future founder of Sinclair Radionics Ltd.) [30-Jul]
Sep Konrad Zuse(6/22/1910-12/18/1995) demonstrates his Z2 telephone relay-based calculator built in his parents' home
Sep Public demonstration of Bell Laboratories' relay Complex Number Calculator remotely operated via terminals at Dartmouth College [11-Sep] [First example of remote computing]
Nov Birth of Harold Koplow (Senior Calculator Engineer at Wang Labs), in Lynn, MA [21-Nov]

1941
Jan Passing of Edward B. Hess, co-founder of Royal Typewriter Co. and one of is principal typewriter designers
Konrad Zuse(6/22/1910-12/18/1995) founds Zuse Apparatebau to manufacture relay calculators/computers
May Konrad Zuse(6/22/1910-12/18/1995) publicly demonstrates the V3 (later known as Z3) relay-based floating-point programmable calculator [12-May]
Librascope Inc. purchased by General Precision Equipment Corp.
May Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd. (Uchida Yoko) incorporated
May Michael James Cochran (Chief Calculator Architect, Texas Instruments) born in Daytona Beach, Florida [21-May]
Sep Birth of H. Edward Roberts, future founder of MITS [13-Sep]
Four-function relay calculator developed by Fuji Electric Works, Japan
Dec Birth of Federico Faggin, designer of the first commercial microprocessor on a chip, the Intel 4004, first used in the Busicom 141-PF electronic calculator [1-Dec]
Dec Geophysical Service Inc. subsidiary of Coronado purchased by four men to form foundation that became Texas Instruments [6-Dec]

1942
Fuji Star Calculator Mfg. Established (Precursor to Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
Oct Smith Corona begins production of the M1903A3 Springfield bolt-action rifle at Syracuse, NY calculator factory for the war effort
Hayakawa Industrial Co., Ltd. changes business name to Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd.

1943
Mar Stanley Frankel & Eldred Nelson among first to arrive at Los Alamos to begin calculations on effectiveness of gun design for first atomic (fission) bomb
Stanley Frankel & Eldred Nelson order a batch of Friden, Monroe, and Marchant rotary electromechanical calculators both for scientists
>>>   and a group of so-called hand computers (human operators of the calculators) at Los Alamos
T-5 Computing Group at Los Alamos formed, with Mary Frankel (Stanley's wife) appointed as the informal group supervisor
Curt Herzstark(1/26/1902-10/27/1988), under Nazi orders, draws up plans what becomes the Curta calculator while imprisoned in German Buchenwald concentration camp
Jul Bell Labs Completes Model II "Relay Interpolator"
Aug Masatoshi Shima born in Shizouka, Japan. Later while at Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd., leads
>>>   pioneering development of simple microprocessor (Intel 4004) used in Busicom 141-PF calculator [22-Aug]
Los Alamos' T-Division leader Hans Bethe recruits mathematician Don Flanders to become the formal head of the T-5 Computing group.
>>>   Straight away Flanders sets about standardizing the calculators used in T-5, eliminating all Monroe calculators and any eight-digit calculators, standardizing
>>>   on the Marchant Silent Speed 10ACT ten-digit calculators. All but two Friden calculators were put to pasture, with the two that remained
>>>   belonging to Mary Frankel and Betty Inglis, which they which they insisted on keeping, believing they were superior to the Marchants

1944
Jan Construction of IBM's Harvard Mark I (also called ASCC, for Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) electromechanical computer completed at IBM's Endicott, NY plant
Feb IBM Harvard Mark I (ASCC) electromechanical computer shipped to Harvard University
Mar John von Neumann runs one of the first production programs on Harvard Mark I electromechanical computer (Top-Secret Implosion A-Bomb Design Simulation)
Three modified IBM Model 601 Multiplying Punch calculators and associated punched card equipment arrive at Los Alamos to aid in nuclear weapons calculations
Stan Frankel, Eldred Nelson, and Richard Feynman go about installing the IBM punched card calculating equipment at Los Alamos
>>>   due to Manhattan Project secrecy precluding IBM field personnel from performing the installation
May IBM Harvard Mark I (ASCC) electromechanical computer begins production calculations for US Navy Bureau of Ships
Aug Harvard Mark I (ASCC) electromechanical computer formally turned over to Harvard University by IBM [7-Aug]

1945
Mar Bell Labs Completes Model IV "Error Detector Mark 22" Relay Calculator
Apr Carl Friden, founder of Friden Calculating Machine Co., passes away [29-Apr]
Fuji Star Calculator Mfg. re-founded as Nippon Calculator Co., Ltd. after WW-II (Precursor of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.)
Walter S. Johnson assumes role as President of Friden Calculating Machine Co.
Jun Bell Labs Completes Model III Relay-Based "Ballistic Computer"

1946
Jan Tektronix, Inc. founded by Jack Murdock and Howard Vollum in Portland, Oregon USA
Apr Tadao Kashio and son Kazuo fouund "Kashio Seisakujo" (Kashio Manufacturing, later "Casio Computer Co., Ltd.")
May Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corp.) established (later, Sony) by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita [7-May]
Smith & Corona renamed Smith-Corona
Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd Incorporated, Tokyo, Japan
Sankyo Seiki Mfg. founded, development of mechanical music box movements begins
Bell Labs' Model V Relay calculator completed. Fully programmable
Nippon Chikuonki Shokai(Japan Recorders Corp.) renamed Nippon Columbia Co.
Tadashi Sasaki visits transistor technology researchers at Bell Labs
Nov Calculating race in Tokyo, between desktop electromechanical calculator and abacus - Abacus Won! [12-Nov]

1947
Feb Sanyo Denki Seisakusho founded by Toshio Iue as spin-off of Matsushita as a result of US-mandated post-war break-up of largest Japanese corporations
Galvin Manufacturing Corp. changes name to "Motorola, Inc."
Denon brand-name established for Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. audio products
Curta calculator (Type I) begins production
Burroughs adopts the capital "B" trademark
Aug Hewlett Packard Co. Incorporated
Sep Seiki Kogako Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. changes name to "Canon Camera Co., Inc."
Dec The first working transistor is created at Bell Laboratories [16-Dec]
Dec First use of the transistor as audio amplifier demonstrated internally at Bell Labs [24-Dec]

1948
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. changes name to Tateisi Electronics Co.
Jun First program runs on Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) Computer at Manchester University UK [21-Jun]
Jun First practical Random Access Memory, the Williams-Kilburn electrostatic cathode ray tube (CRT) used in SSEM
Jun The grown junction transistor is invented by Dr. William Shockley [23-Jun]
Jun Transistor first publicly demonstrated by Bell Laboratories [30-Jun]
Futaba Denshi founded in Mobara, Japan, manufacturing radio vacuum tubes
Raytheon introduces the first successful commercial Germanium point-contact transistor, the CK703

1949
First Japanese Business Machine Exposition held in Tokyo, Japan
Wyle Laboratories founded by Frank S. Wyle with $5,000 loan from his father
Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) and Western Electric (Bell Labs) establish joint-venture with funding from Western Electric to develop transistor technology in Japan
May The Cambridge University (UK) EDSAC stored program computer executes its first program [6-May]
May Japanese government establishes the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) to coordinate finance
>>>   and business aspects of Japanese economy to strengthen the country's recovery from World War II
Introduction of the Friden STW-10 electromechanical calculator at the fall New York Business Show
Bell Labs' Relay-Based Complex Number Calculator decommissioned and dismantled

1950
Jan Oi Electric Co. Ltd., founded
Feb Royal Typewriter Co. introduces its first electric typewriter
Walter M. A. Andersen founds Andersen Laboratories, Inc., a pioneering company in development of low-cost magnetostrictive delay line technology
Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) begins first Japanese transistor R&D effort as a result of joint-venture with Western Electric
Apr Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., formally incorporated [1-Apr]
Apr First Swedish-built computer, BARK (Binary Automatic Relay Calculator), introduced.
>>>   5,000 telephone relays, plug-board programmable, 50 memory registers, 100 number constant table. [28-Apr]
Canon Camera Co., Inc. opens branch office in New York City
Diehl Corp. begins development of mechanical calculating machines
Nov Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. (a.k.a. Broughtons of Bristol) incorporated, providing Sales & Support of imported office equipment in UK [17-Nov]

1951
Jan Geophysical Service Inc. changes name to General Instruments Inc., but due to a name clash
>>>   with General Instrument, Inc., changes name to Texas Instruments
Feb First commercially-available electronic computer, the Ferranti Mark I, delivered
Jun Dr. An Wang co-founds Wang Laboratories with Dr. Ge Yao Chu, with $600 of self funding [22-Jun]
Concept of microprogramming conceived by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University
Jul Bell Labs announces the development of the junction transistor [4-Jul]
Bell Labs begins selling licensing rights to transistor technology for $25,000
Sep Bowmar Instrument Corp. founded in Fort Wayne, Indiana, by Edward White
Sep Bell Labs hosts first technology forum for potential licensees of transistor technology

1952
Mar Takachiho Koheki Co. Ltd. founded [13-Mar]
Apr Bell Laboratories hosts nine-day Transistor Technology Symposium for licensees of transistor technology
Benson-Lehner introduces the Computyper (later sold to Friden)
Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) develops prototype relay calculator, the ETL Mark 1
First demonstration of magnetic core memory
Jun Wang Laboratories, Inc. incorporated [30-Jun]
Friden SRW electromechanical calculator introduced [First Desktop Electromechanical Calculator with Automatic Square Root]
Founding of early semiconductor manufacturer Transitron Electronic Corp. by brothers David & Leo Bakalar.
Jul Heinz Nixdorf founds Labor für Impulstechnik, in Essen, Germany (later, Nixdorf Computer AG) [1-Jul]
Aug Physical Research Laboratories acquired by Marchant Calculators, Inc., renamed Marchant Research Inc. [7-Aug]
Diehl Corp. (W. Germany) begins production of semi-automatic mechanical calculators

1953
Jan Paul Gardner Allen[1/21/1953-10/15/2018 R.I.P], future co-founder of Microsoft and Philanthropist, Born in Seattle, Washington [21-Jan]
National Cash Register Co. (NCR), acquires Computer Research Corp., forming NCR Electronics Division
Massimo Rinaldi graduates with Electrical Engineering degree from La Sapienza University of Rome
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. renamed to Burroughs Corp.
Nov University of Manchester's Experimental Transistor Computer operational [First Transistor-based(Logic) General Purpose Computer]
Burroughs Corp. delivers its first electronic computer, UDEC I, to Wayne State University
Smith-Corona renamed Smith-Corona, Inc.
Philco Corp. develops the surface barrier transistor, a Germanium transistor developed expressly for high-speed computers
Charles Thornton, noted businessman, forms Electro Dynamics, Corp. along with Roy Ash and Hugh Jamieson, in Beverly Hills, CA (Precursor to Litton Industries)
First practical use of magnetic core memory in a computer; 32x32x16 (1024 16-bit words) array in Whirlwind I using vacuum tube-based drivers and sense amplifiers
Raytheon announces the first mass-produced commercial junction transistor, the Germanium PNP CK722
RCA introduces its first commercial transistor

1954
Jan Bell Labs' transistorized TRADIC computer goes operational [First Transistor-based(Logic) Computer in US]
Büromaschinen Werke AG renamed to Olympia Werke AG
Mar Parametron invented in Japan by Eiichi Goto, a graduate student at Tokyo University.
>>>   Parametron-based logic was used in the joint effort Ricoh/Oi Electric Aleph Zero electronic calculator
Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory creates Electronics Department specifically tasked with solid-state electronic technology research & development
Brother International Corp. established in US by Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co.
Apr Texas Instruments R&D develops first functional Silicon junction transistor [4-Apr]
Apr Royal Typewriter Co. announces intent to merge with McBee Co.
Burroughs purchases Haydu Brothers vacuum-tube manufacturing firm to manufacture Burroughs' newly-invented Nixie display tube
May Texas Instruments announces it will begin production of Silicon transistors [10-May]
Jul Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Ltd. (Sony) announces availability of the first transistor produced in Japan, a PNP Germanium-alloy device
Jul Invention of Parametron logic device announced
Jul Merger of Royal Typewriter Co. and McBee Co. completed, forming Royal McBee Corp.
Sep Toyo Electronics Industry established in Kyoto Japan, known as R.ohm (Future ROHM Semiconductor)
Charles Thornton's Electro Dynamics Corp. purchases vacuum tube manufacturer Litton Industries for $1.5M with financing from Lehman Brothers, assumes Litton Industries name.
Oct Fuji Telecommunications Mfg. (later Fujitsu) introduces FACOM 100 programmable relay calculator (~4,500 relays)
Friden Calculating Machine Co. opens production facility in Wageningen, Holland
Production of the Curta Type II begins
Dec Toshio and Tadao Kashio (Kashio Seisakujo - later Casio) complete prototype solenoid-operated electric calculator
Dec The Regency TR-1, the first transistor radio (using Texas Instruments transistors), is introduced at price of $49.95

1955
Feb Monroe Calculator Co. introduces the Monrobot III vacuum tube, magnetic drum programmable desk-sized electronic calculator
Autonetics established as an independent division of North American Rockwell specializing in military electronics
Canon opens US Branch office in New York City, establishing Canon USA
Texas Instruments introduces the first commercial Silicon-junction transistors, the 900-Series
Typewriter marketing firm, Commodore International Ltd., founded by Jack Tramiel in Toronto, Canada
May Dr. An Wang granted US Patent 2,708,722 for principles of principles of magnetic core memory
Remington Rand merges with Sperry Gyroscope Corp., forming Sperry Rand
Matsushita begins use of "PanaSonic" as brand name for products sold outside native market
Jun Wang Laboratories incorporated
Aug Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, Ltd. (Sony) produces Japan's first transistor radio, the TR-55, utilizing five Sony-made Germanium transistors developed under license from Bell Laboratories
Aug Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, Ltd. (Sony) listed as OTC stock on Tokyo Stock Exchange
Oct WEIZAC electronic computer becomes fully operational [First Digital Electronic Computer in the Middle East (Israel)]
Oct Birth of William Henry Gates, Seattle, WA (Future Co-Founder of Microsoft) [28-Oct]
Nov Introduction of Stanley Frankel-designed Librascope LGP-30 Small Computer
Nov Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory completes large-scale relay-based ETL Mark II Computer, over 20,000 relays

1956
Development project behind the Bell Punch electronic calculator begins
Mar Friden Calculating Machine Co. acquires Commercial Controls Corp. (Originator of Flexowriter/Justowriter)
Mar Japan's Fuji Photographic Film Co. completes Japan's first electronic computer, FUJIC, 1700 vacuum tubes, delay line memory
Mar Dr. An Wang sells rights to core memory principles patent to IBM for $500,000 to provide capital for Wang Laboratories [4-Mar]
Realtone Electronics Corp.(US) founded in New York by Saul Ashkenazi to market imported (initially from Kobe Kogyo Corp.(TEN)) Japanese transistor radios and other Japanese products in the US
Facit (Sweden) starts up subsidiary, Facit Electronics, to build and sell electronic computers
Jul Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) completes Japan's first transistorized computer, the ETL Mark III using optical glass ultrasonic delay lines for storage
Burroughs Corp. acquires computer manufacturer ElectroData Corporation
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) TX-0 fully transistorized computer completed
Dr. William Shockley founds Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mt. View, California, with investment from Beckman Instruments, Inc. to develop silicon semiconductor technology
Aug Smith Corona acquires Kleinschmidt Laboratories of Deerfield, IL for telecommunications products and engineering/technical talent
Kashio Seisakujo (later, Casio Computer Co., Ltd.) shows prototype relay-based general purpose electric calculator
Dec Dr. William Shockley(2/13/1910-8/12/1989), Walter Brattain(2/10/1902-10/13/1987), and
>>>   John Bardeen(5/23/1908-1/30/1991) jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for discovery of the transistor effect [10-Dec]
US Government action mandates Bell Labs make transistor design information available for licensing

1957
Jan Kashio Seisakujo renamed Casio Computer Co., Ltd.
Sherman Fairchild, founder of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, funds startup of Fairchild Semiconductor to develop Silicon transistors
Felt and Tarrant Mfg. Co. becomes "Comptometer Corp."
RCA introduces the 2N404 PNP alloy-junction Germanium transistor which became heavily used in early US electronic calculator designs. Example: Wang 360
Clary Corp. introduces a plug-board-programmable electronic calculator built into a desk, the Clary DE-60
Elmer R. Easton joins Wyle Laboratories as part of its management team after five years at Lear Inc. (Aircraft)
Digital Equipment Corporation (a.k.a. DEC) founded in Maynard, Massachusetts
Hitachi completes its first electronic calculating machine, the HIPAC MK-1, based on Eiichi Goto's Parametron logic circuit, used for calculating long distance power line sag
The Nixie Tube gas-discharge numeric display tube goes into volume production at Haydu Brothers division of Burroughs
Jun Casio Computer Co., Ltd. formally incorporated [1-Jun]
Jun Casio 14-A Relay Calculator debuts for sale, 342 relays [Casio's First Commercial Relay Calculator]
Jun Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd. contracted by Casio as exclusive distributor of Casio relay calculators
The "Traitorous Eight" senior engineers resign from Shockley Semiconductor to join fledgling Fairchild Semiconductor
IBM introduces the 610 "Auto-Point" programmable calculator (floating point, programmable w/magnetic drum, vacuum-tube logic) Video on YouTube
Royal Typewriter division of Royal McBee produces its 10-millionth typewriter
Dec Casio delivers first 14-A Relay Calculator to exclusive distributor, Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.

1958
Jan Bell Punch shows prototype of electronic calculator using cold-cathode tube technology
Jan Marchant closes down Marchant Research subsidiary
Jan Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, Ltd., renamed to Sony Corporation
Matsushita Communication Industrial Co., Ltd. established as spin off from Matsusushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. introduces the NEAC-1101 and NEAC-1102 computers based on Parametron technology
James Picker Co. acquired by CIT Financial, but Picker family still manages operations
Marchant Calculators, Inc. acquires Johnson Adding Machine Co.
Apr Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. agree in principle to merge [7-Apr]
Sep Merger of Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. completed, forming Smith-Corona Marchant
Sep Jack Kilby demonstrates his prototype Integrated Circuit to his boss at Texas Instruments [12-Sep]
Oct Monroe Calculator Co. acquired by Litton Industries, becomes Monroe division of Litton Industries
Smith-Corona Marchant acquires British Typewriters, Ltd.
Dec Sony Corporation listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange

1959
Hitachi establishes business presence in the US; Hitachi New York, Ltd.
Friden SBT-10 electromechanical calculator introduced offering "Back Transfer" from carriage to keyboard
Apr Tsugio Makimoto hires on at Hitachi, working to improve Germanium transistor operating speed
Apr Hitachi Ltd. completes its first transistorized computer, the binary-coded decimal HITAC 301
Apr Varadyne Industries, Inc. incorporated in Santa Monica, CA
Bryant Chucking Grinder Co. begins design work on a magnetic disk drive
Robert Noyce of Fairchild develops first monolithic Integrated Circuit
Massimo Rinaldi founds Transimatic S.p.A. in Rome, manufacturing mechanical calculators and accounting machines (later, IME)
Olivetti introduces Italy's first commercial electronic computer, the transistorized Elea 9003
May Casio 14-B Relay calculator introduced with automatic Square Root
Árpád Klatsmányi joins Elektronikus Mérőkészülékek Gyára(EMG),
>>>   (Electronics Measurement Equipment Works) founded in Hungary, performing research on
>>>   the use of transistors for digital logic
LGP-30 computer installed at Dartmouth University, beginning Dartmouth's legacy in computer history
Solitron Devices, Inc., solid-state electronic component manufacturer, founded by Benjamin Friedman, in West Palm Beach, FL
May Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (later, NEC) delivers first commercial Japanese-made fully transistorized computer, the NEAC 2203
May National Semiconductor founded in Danbury, Connecticut
Nov Design team formed at Packard Bell to develop what becomes the PB-250 computer
Dec NYSE IPO of Massachusetts-based semiconductor designer/manufacturer Transitron Electronic Corp.
Dec   consisting of 1,000,000 shares at $36/share sells out in 30 minutes.
Japan displaces the United States as the world's largest producer of transistors, producing 86 million transistors in 1959

1960
Feb NEC prototypes first Japanese-made mesa-type Germanium transistor [19-Feb]
Feb Sony establishes Sony Corporation of America in US
Feb First customer shipment of Clary DE 60 desk-sized programmable electronic calculator
Mar Texas Instruments announces the SN502 "Solid Circuit" Silicon Monolithic IC Flip Flop ($450 Retail per Flip Flop!) [TI's First Commercially Sold Digital IC]
Federico Faggin begins computer design career at Olivetti in Italy
Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) begins R&D effort in Integrated Circuit technology
Comptometer Corp. sells right use trademark "Comptometer" to Control Systems Ltd., the owner of Bell Punch Co. Ltd., and Sumlock, Ltd.
Mar Casio 301 Scientific relay calculator introduced
Philco Corp. files for bankruptcy protection, seeks buyer for distressed business
Apr Clevite Transistor Products acquires Shockley Transistor Corp., William Shockley joins Clevite's transistor division
Apr Engineers from Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) visit Prof. Hiroshi Ozaki at Osaka University to study transistorized digital logic design principles
Jun Smith-Corona Marchant announces a line of photocopy machines
Jul James (Phil) Ferguson begins new role in Sustaining Engineering at Fairchild Semiconductor [10-Jul]
Aug Prototype Packard Bell PB-250 computer operational
Smith-Corona Marchant enters accounting/bookkeeping machine market with machines manufactured for them by West-German firm Kienzle Apparate, GmbH
Sep Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally creates high technology product research department
Sep Fairchild Semiconductor produces first functional planar monolithic integrated circuit
Oct First production Packard Bell PB-250 computer delivered to customer
Research into development of fully electronic calculator begins at Hayakawa Electric(Sharp) within newly formed R&D department under direction of Mr. Atsushi Asada

1961
Jan Japan's government-backed Electro-Technical Laboratory produces a simple integrated circuit as proof-of-concept [Japan's First Integrated Circuit]
William Kahn begins design specification for Mathatron calculator
Feb Fuji Tsushinki Manufacturing Corp. (now Fujitsu) completes prototype of its first transistorized computer, the FACOM 222 general purpose computer
Feb Casio announces the "TUC Compuwriter", a relay-based calculating machine for business that provided a Toshiba-made output typewriter
Sony R&D Engineer Saburu Uemura creates a "homebrew" transistorized electronic abacus (calculator) using over one-thousand reject radio transistors
Mar Clary introduces DAC-2500 electronic calculating unit as OEM product (derived from DE 60 programmable calculator)
Bryant Chucking Grinder Co. acquired by Ex-Cell-O Corp., becomes Bryant Computer Products
Realtone Electronics Corp. goes public on AMEX with symbol RTE
VEB Mechanik Büromaschinenwerk Rheinmetall (East Germany) introduces line of rotary electromechanical calculators under the Supermetall brand
Mar Fairchild announces its MicroLogic family of bipolar logic integrated circuits
Mar IRE International Convention and Show, Waldorf Astoria Hotel / Coliseum, New York [20-23 Mar]
Apr Business Equipment Exposition, New York Coliseum [17-21 Apr]
Apr Logicon Inc. founded by eight engineers in Redondo Beach, CA, focusing on defense-oriented computing systems
Kōnosuke Matsushita of Matsushita Electric Housewares Mfg. Works travels to US and cements deals to produce television sets under the "Panasonic" brand for sale in US markets
May Friden Calculating Machine Co. contacts Stanford Research Institute (SRI) to develop a CRT-based display system for a calculator
Mitsubishi Electric produces Japan's first commercial integrated circuit under trade name
  of Molectron (Molecular Electronics) using Westinghouse IC samples as a reference
TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) invented at Thompson Ramo Wooldridge (TRW) by James Buie
Wyle Laboratories goes public
Sumlock Comptometer Ltd. founded, primary distributor for Bell Punch calculators
Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co. (Brother) begins manufacturing office products
Aug Japan Electronic Computer Co. (JECC) formed, a computing equipment rental agency formed by collaboration of the Japanese government and major computing equipment
>>>   manufacturers; Tokyo Shibaura Denki(Toshiba), Fuji Tsushinki Mfg. Co. (Fujitsu), Nippon Electric Co. (NEC), Hitachi,
>>>   Oki Electric Industry, Matsushita Electric Industrial and Mitsubishi Electric
Tadashi Sasaki earns PhD in Electrical Engineering from Kyoto University
BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) formed from reorganization of Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Sep SRI Delivers Prototype CRT Display System to Friden, One Month Ahead of Schedule
Sep Signetics (contraction of Signal Network Electronics) Corp. founded by ex-Fairchild engineers [12-Sep]
Oct Sumlock Comptometer/Bell Punch introduce the Anita C/VII (Mark 7) and the C/VIII (Mark 8) at the Hamburg Business Equipment Fair
Oct Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) shown to the world at London Exposition [First mass-marketed desktop electronic calculator]
Oct Victor Adding Machine Co. and Comptometer Corp. merge to form Victor Comptometer Corp.
Oct First public exhibition of the Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) at the Business Efficiency Exhibition in London
Wyle Laboratories acquires Ransom Research Inc., of San Pedro, CA. Ransom Research develops and markets
>>>   a line of standardized transistor-based logic modules and associated equipment.
Nov Friden begins project EDTC-1, integrating SRI Display System with Friden-developed Calculator Logic
Dec Diehl Corp. (West Germany) and SCM forge agreement for SCM to gain exclusive rights to market Diehl calculators in North America [9-Dec]
Dec Ford Motor Company purchases Philco, creating Philco-Ford division, marketing electronic semiconductor components, consumer products, computer systems, and space & defense industry equipment [11-Dec]

1962
Jan Sumlock Comptometer begins accepting orders for the Anita Mk7 and Anita Mk8 calculators
Jan Sumlock Comptometer begins mass manufacturing of the Anita Mk7 and Anita Mk8
Jan Casio introduces the AL-1 scientific relay calculator with preset programmability
Feb Rapid Data Systems & Equipment, Ltd. incorporated [6-Feb]
Feb Mathatronics Inc., founded by William Kahn, Roy Reach, and David Shapiro. Formal design of Mathatron calculator begins
Mar Signetics announces the SE-100 series of DTL (Diode-Transistor Logic) Integrated Circuits [First Commercial DTL ICs]
Remex Corp. opens doors in Palm Beach, FL, as a business machine distributor
Facit shuts down Facit Electronics subsidiary due to extreme competition in the computer marketplace
Philips demonstrates two prototype transistorized electronic adding machines and a prototype transistorized three-function (+,-,X) 10-key calculating device
Stanford Research Institute delivers prototype CRT Display design and hardware to Friden
General Electric produces the first practical Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) founded in Rome, Italy, as partnership between Dr. Massimo Rinaldi and Edison S.p.A.
May Friden's EDTC-1 magnetic drum-based electronic calculator prototype operational
May Addmaster Corp. incorporated to manufacture low-cost adding machines utilizing DuPont DELRIN™ plastic components
Commodore International, Ltd. goes public, changes name to Commodore Business Machines
Jun SRI issues refund of $4,444.62 to Friden due to Display Project cost under-run
Jun Friden begins design project to replace magnetic drum in prototype electronic calculator with magnetostrictive delay line; prototype machine designated EDTC-3
Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. establishes US sales presence as Sharp Electronics Corp.
Aug Japan's first microprogrammed computer, KT-Pilot, announced as joint collaboration of Kyoto University and Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co. (now Toshiba)
Nippon Sewing Machine Co. changes name to Brother Industries, Ltd.
Saburo Uemura, researcher at Sony, demonstrates third prototype hand-built electronic calculator with typewriter output, designated MD-3, to skeptical management
Olivetti begins design of Programma 101 electronic calculator under direction of Pier Giorgio Perotto
Nov Smith-Corona Marchant changes company name to SCM Corp.
Nov Soviet Union demonstrates operational prototype of an all-electronic calculator, precursor to production VEGA electronic calculator
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan) initiates an electronic calculator development project in collaboration with Ricoh
Friden SRQ electromechanical calculator introduced, offering automatic square root [First Electromechanical Rotary Calculator with Square Root]
Dec Working prototype of Mathatron calculator formally demonstrated to investors of Mathatronics Inc.
Dec Ferranti Atlas computer at Manchester University provides first virtual memory management capabilities (Address-Translation, Memory Paging)
Dec US Subsidiary of Ricoh Co., Ltd. founded as Ricoh Industries, U.S.A. Inc.

1963
Jan Richard (Dick) Ahrens begins work at Friden in Calculator Engineering Department working on what becomes the Friden EC-130 [7-Jan]
Mar First order for two Mathatronics Mathatron calculators placed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
Realtone Electronics Corp. begins marketing consumer electronics products under the Soundesign brand name
General Arthur Lowell retires from the US Marine Corps
Apr Ricoh Europe S.A. established in Switzerland as subsidiary of Ricoh Co., Ltd.
Apr Riken Optical Co. Ltd. changes name to Ricoh Co., Ltd.
Long-term merger negotiations between Keinzle Apparate, GmbH and Labor füur Impulstechnik (later, Nixdorf) begin
Massimo Rinaldi sells majority control of Transimatic to Edison, S.p.A., assumes R&D Director role, and changes name of the company to Industria Macchine Elettroniche, S.p.A.(IME)
Jun Friden exhibits prototype Friden EC-130 electronic calculator to limited audiences
Jun General Micro-electronics(GM-e), spinoff of Fairchild, founded by Col. Arthur Lowell(retired, US Marine Corps) along with
>>>   Robert Norman(3/24/1927-1/21/2017), Howard Bobb, and James (Phil) Ferguson (11/18/1930-1/15/2016) (All from Fairchild) [31-Jun]
Jun Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) and Olims Consolidated Ltd. (Australia) establish joint venture
>>>   (Olims-Hayakawa Electronics Pty Ltd.) manufacturing and selling Hayakawa-designed radios and TVs under the Sharp brand name in Australia
Jun Friden introduces its 6010 Computyper computer system
Sanyo introduces the "Cadnica" line of Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable batteries
Singer Manufacturing Co. changes named to Singer Corp.
Jun SCM Corp. announces plan to move manufacturing calculators from Oakland, CA, to Orangeburg, SC
Jul Announcement of intent for Singer Corp. to acquire Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Jul]
Jul Mathatronics Inc., successfully completes first customer shipment of Mathatron Model 8-48 calculator to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute for shipboard research use
Jul Canon Camera Co. Inc. completes prototype 10-key electronic calculator
Aug Formal agreement approval announced for Singer Corp.'s acquisition of Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Aug]
Aug Western Electronics Show & Convention (WESCON), Cow Palace, San Francisco, CA [20-23 Aug]
Diehl Corp. introduces the "Transmatic", a sophisticated four-function electromechanical automatic printing calculator
Aug Oi Electric exhibits trial production prototype of its Aleph Zero calculator
Fairchild introduces the first RTL (Resistor-Transistor Logic) Flip Flop IC, the 907
Sep Project to develop timesharing computing system begins at Dartmouth College directed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz (becomes DTSS)
Oct Japanese Electronics Show, Minato Fairgrounds, Osaka Japan [2-8 Oct]
Oct Sale of Friden Calculating Machine Co. to Singer Corp. completed [14-Oct]
Oct Philip R. Samwell succeeds Walter S. Johnson as President of Friden Division of Singer Corp.
Oct Friden Division of Singer Corp. acquires Physical Sciences Corp. of Arcadia, CA
Oct Pyle National announces majority funding of General Micro-electronics [23-Oct]
Oct General Micro-electronics announces production of its first MOS IC family, dubbed Picologic
Thomas Osborne leaves SCM Corp.
Nov 17th Annual NEREM (National Electronics Research & Engineering Meeting), Boston, MA [4-6 Nov]
Nov Mathatronics Mathatron formally introduced @ NEREM show, Boston [Many Firsts: First All-Transistor w/Magnetic Core Memory, "Learn Mode" Stored Program, Floating Decimal, Scientific Notation, Algebraic Logic, Automatic Square Root]
Dec MOS IC guru Frank Wanlass(5/17/1933-9/9/2010) leaves Fairchild to join General Micro-electronics for MOS LSI development
Exports compose 22% of Japanese electronic output, worth $364M. Japan's imports of electronics from US: $63M

1964
Jan Thomas Osborne begins development of electronic calculator (progenitor of HP 9100A)
Jan Dartmouth College Receives National Science Foundation Grant for development of timeshared computing system
Feb K&M Electronics founded, developing electronic inventory systems
The Dual In-Line Package (DIP) for ICs invented at Fairchild R&D Lab
David Takagishi (later of Cintra) begins work at Fairchild Semiconductor
Union Carbide Electronics created as part of Union Carbide conglomerate, with Jean Hoerni as President
Dr. Tadashi Sasaki leaves Fujitsu for senior management position at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Casio has operational prototype of a transistorized desktop calculator
Wang Laboratories begins development of LOCI-1 Calculator
Feb Dartmouth Receives two computers manufactured by General Electric for implementation of timeshared computing system, GE-235(Back-end CPU) and GE Datanet-30(Front-end CPU)
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) shows prototype Compet 10 (Model CS-10A) transistorized electronic calculator and announces production [18-Mar]
Mar IEEE International Convention, New York [23-26 Mar]
Mar Italy's IME (Industria Macchine Elettroniche) first shows its IME 84 electronic calculator [IME, and Italy's, First Electronic Calculator]
Mar IEEE International Convention, New York Hilton Hotel & Coliseum [23-26 Mar]
Mar Sony shows prototype MD-5 electronic calculator at IEEE International Convention, New York [Sony's First Publicly Shown Desktop Electronic Calculator]
Mar General Electric computers installed in 1700 Sq.Ft. in basement of old building at Dartmouth University for implementation of timeshared computing system
Mar Ricoh, in collaboration with Oi Electric Co., Ltd. shows prototype version of Aleph Zero 101 electronic calculator [Parametron logic]
Apr IBM announces the System/360 (includes Models 30, 40, 50, 60, 62, and 70) [7-Apr]
Apr Sony shows prototype electronic calculator (MD-6?) in Japanese Pavilion at opening of New York World's Fair & Exposition [22-Apr]
Apr Italy's IME formally announces its IME 84 electronic calculator at the Milan, Italy International Trade Fair [12 to 25-Apr]
Apr Wyle Laboratories demonstrates pre-production Wyle WS-01 Scientific magnetic disk-based electronic calculator at Spring Joint Computer Conference, Washington D.C. [21 to 23-Apr]
Apr Friden announces the EC-130 to its sales force at annual "Fiesta de los Conquistadores" sales convention in Boca Raton, FL. [29-Apr]
May The Dartmouth Time Shared System (DTSS) runs its first BASIC (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) program: "PRINT 2+2" [1-May, 4:00 AM]
May Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally announces its plan to introduce a fully electronic desk calculator, the Compet CS-10A [14-May] [Hayakawa Electric and Japan's first electronic calculator]
May Sony announces intent to enter the electronic calculator marketplace [14-May]
May Friden formally introduces the EC-130 electronic calculator in public event held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, with retail price of $2,150 [20-May] [Friden's First Electronic Calculator]
May George E. Comstock (Future founder of Diablo Systems) hired at Friden as R&D Director
May Canon shows its Canola 130 Prototype [Canon's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Friden begins national advertising campaign for the EC-130 electronic calculator [6-Jun]
Jun Fairchild introduces the 930-Series DTL IC Logic family of four different IC's
Jun Casio 401 Relay calculator introduced
Citizen Business Machine Inc. established as subsidiary of Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.
Jun US Patent Office grants Texas Instruments two patents on IC technology
Jul Friden begins internal project E-585, development of the Friden 1150 IC-based printing electronic calculator [2-Jul]
Jul Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) commences delivery of Compet 10 (CS-10A) electronic calculator in Japan [Hayakawa Electric, and Japan's First Production Electronic Calculator]
Soviet "VEGA" electronic calculator begins production [Soviet Union's First Electronic Calculator]
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Toshiba) forms small engineering team to develop a desktop electronic calculator as a result of Hayakawa Electric's introduction of Japan's first electronic calculator, the Sharp Compet 10
Aug Western Electronic Show and Convention (WESCON), Los Angeles Sports Arena [25-28 Aug]
Aug General Micro-electronics (GM-e) Publicly announces the first commercial "large-scale" MOS IC, the PL20 20-Bit shift register, at WESCON Show
Aug The Friden EC-130 electronic calculator wins Industrial Design award at WESCON Show
Aug Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) forms Industrial Instrument Division to focus on electronic calculator business
Aug Olivetti's Computer Division sold to General Electric. Electronic calculator team saved from sale at last minute by changing classification of the Programma 101 project from "computer" to "calculator". [31-Aug]
Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/IX (Mark 9) debuts
Sep Wang Laboratories introduces the LOCI-1 calculator [Wang Laboratories' First Electronic Calculator]
Sep Dr. An Wang granted US Patent 3,402,285 for principles of Wang LOCI calculator
Oct In-depth article on Sharp's Compet 10 calculator written up in Japan's Semiconductor Technique Magazine
Oct Victor and General Micro-electronics(GM-e) sign contract for GM-e to develop and produce the Victor 3900 calculator
Oct Los Angeles BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) show [19-23 Oct]
Oct Canon formally introduces the Canola 130 electronic calculator
Oct Texas Instruments begins sale of military-spec SN5400-Series TTL Integrated Circuits in flat-pack packages
British electronic component manufacturer Mullard Ltd. demonstrates a prototype 12-digit electronic calculator using combination of cold-cathode tubes and transistors.
Dec Wanderer-Werke AG publicly shows pre-production prototype of its Conti electronic printing calculator. Logic electronics and power supply,
>>>   designed and built by Labor Für Impulstechnik (later, Nixdorf) under contract to Wanderer Werke, housed in chassis hidden
>>>   under table, with keyboard and printer mechanisms housed in mostly empty cabinet on display [7-Dec]
Dec British electronic component manufacturer Mullard shows prototype electronic calculator utilizing thyratrons and transistors
Dec Monroe EPIC 2000 calculator introduced [1-Dec]
Dec MOS IC innovator Frank Wanlass(5/17/1933-9/9/2010) leaves General Micro-electronics after only one year, moving to General Instrument
Dec Arthur Lowell resigns (under pressure) as President of General Micro-electronics
Dec James (Phil) Ferguson assumes role of President of General Micro-electronics
Dec Thomas Osborne's "Green Machine" calculator prototype becomes fully operational [24-Dec]
Dec Litton Industries announces intent to acquire Royal McBee Corp.
Wyle Laboratories WS-02 Scientific delay-Line based update of the WS-01 calculator debuts

1965
Jan Wang Laboratories LOCI-2 electronic calculator debuts [Wang Laboratories' First Programmable Calculator]
General Micro-electronics (GM-e) completes breadboard prototype design for Victor 3900 using its Milliwatt Logic Bipolar integrated circuits
Mar Litton Industries acquisition of Royal McBee complete. Royal McBee split into five divisions, with Royal Typewriter brand resurrected for manufacture and marketing of typewriters
Mar IEEE Annual International Convention, New York, NY [22-26 Mar]
Apr Wanderer-Werke AG formally introduces the Labor füur Impulstechnik (LFI) designed Wanderer Conti printing desktop electronic calculator at Hanover Fair
Apr Friden EC-132 introduced to Friden sales force at annual sales convention [8-Apr]
Fairchild introduces first commercial line of Integrated Circuits using Dual-Inline Package (DIP) format that the company invented
Solitron Devices, Inc. purchases Honeywell Semiconductor Products Division
The transistor-based Hunor 131, introduced. Designed by Árpád Klatsmányi of Elektronikus Mérőkészülékek Gyára(EMG), Budapest, Hungary [Hungary's First Desktop Electronic Calculator]
Apr General Micro-electronics delivers first 25 production Victor 3900 calculators to Victor Comptometer
Bowmar Instrument Corp. purchases Acton Laboratories, Inc (ALI), forming Bowmar/ALI Inc. as fully-owned subsidiary (Future electronic calculator design/manufacturing arm of Bowmar Instrument Corp.)
Olympia Werke AG introduces the RAE 4/15 [Olympia's First Electronic Calculator]
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. shows prototype "Unicon 160" electronic calculator (precursor to the Busicom 161)
May Former General Micro-electronics (GM-e) founder Arthur Lowell assumes role of Executive Director of R&D at North American Aviation's Autonetics diviion
May Casio 402 financial math-oriented relay-based calculator debuts
AB Åtvidabergs Industrier changes its corporate name to Facit AB
Clevite Transistor Products sold to ITT Industries
First operational prototype of Data Acquisition Corp. DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator
Jun First customer delivers of Monroe EPIC 2000 calculators begin
Jun Smith Corona Marchant (SCM) announces the Stanley Frankel-designed SCM Cogito 240 Electronic Calculator
Jun Malcolm McMillan(Physicist) and Jack Volder(CORDIC Developer) demo their "Athena" prototype calculator that uses CORDIC algorithms to perform fast fixed point trigonometric functions to Hewlett Packard executives
Jun Inventor/Electronics Engineer Thomas Osborne demos his "Green Machine" floating point calculator prototype to Hewlett Packard executives
Jun Casio ends nearly eight year exclusive distribution agreement with Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.
Royal McBee acquired by Litton Industries
Aug General Electric starts first commercial timesharing system based on Dartmouth University's DTSS timeshared environment
Wanderer-Werke AG introduces the transistorized Wanderer Logatronic desk-sized office computer developed by Labor füur Impulstechnik (LFI)
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Toshiba) establishes U.S. business presence
Sep Caltype Corporation incorporated, subsidiary of Transistron Electronic Corp. [15-Sep]
Sep Casio announces the Casio 001 electronic calculator (Sold only in Japan) [Casio's first production all-electronic calculator]
Sep Texas Instruments' secret "Cal-Tech" skunk-works battery-powered handheld electronic calculator project begins
Sep Sharp introduces the Compet 20 (CS-20A) [Sharp's First Use of Silicon Transistors]
Oct Sharp Compet 20 shown at Japan's 31st Annual Business Machine Show in Osaka, Japan
Oct Seven new desktop electronic calculators shown at BEMA show, New York [25-29 Oct]
Oct Dero Research & Development introduces the Sage 1 calculator at BEMA show [First and Only Electronic Calculator by Dero Research]
Oct Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 3900 using General Micro-electronics' MOS chip set [First MOS LSI IC-Based Electronic Calculator]
Oct Olivetti Programma 101 announced [Olivetti's First Electronic Calculator]
Oct Wang Laboratories' first public demonstration of new 300-Series Calculator
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 21 (CS-21A), adds square root to the Compet 20
Facit AB cements two year exclusive OEM agreement with Sharp to resell electronic calculators under Facit and Addo badges
Nov Canon introduces the Canon 161
Dec Toshiba BC-1001 introduced [Toshiba's First Electronic Calculator]
Combined output of Japanese electronic calculator manufacturers for 1965 is 4,355 machines

1966
Jan Hitachi produces its first Integrated Circuits; Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) bipolar devices, HD101 - HD106
Jan Casio Root 001 introduced [Casio's First Electronic Calculator with Square Root]
Jan Alan W. Drew appointed President/CEO of Friden Div. of Singer Corp., succeeding Philip R. Samwell
Mar Sale of General Micro-electronics to Philco-Ford completed
Mar Friden begins engineering development program internally designated E-630 for a new IC-based CRT display model 1130 calculator, subsequently re-designated the Friden 1160
Mar Hitachi completes Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) IC-based prototype desktop electronic calculator using chips it manufactured
Mar Wang Laboratories begins production of 300-Series Calculators
Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. split from Bell Punch to design and build electronic calculators
Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) introduces the IME 86 calculator
Due to cash problems, Commodore's founder & CEO, Jack Tramiel, sells 17% of his company to Canadian investor, Irving Gould
Successful radio and TV joint venture between Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) and Olims Electronics (Australia) begins manufacture
>>>   and sale of Sharp-designed electronic calculators under the Sharp brand name in Australia, beginning with the Sharp Compet 20
Data Acquisition Corp. introduces the DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator
May Sharp introduces the Compet 30 (Model CS-30A) electronic calculator, making it available for purchase
May Casio 164 electronic calculator introduced
May Diehl introduces the Combitron electronic programmable printing desktop calculator, designed by Stanley Frankel [Diehl's first electronic calculator]
Sharp announces an update to the Compet 30 (CS-30A) designated Model CS-30B, providing support for negative numbers, and adding error and memory register status indicators to the left of the display
Jun Introduction of the SCM (Smith-Corona-Marchant) Cogito 240 and Cogito 240SR electronic calculators [SCM's first electronic calculators]
Jun Toshiba introduces BCT-1211 8-Terminal timeshared calculator system [First Commercial Timeshared Multi-Terminal Calculating System]
Jun Friden partners with Texas Instruments for development of custom Ring-Counter Integrated Circuits using TTL technology
Jul Casio 101 introduced in Japan [First export-ready electronic calculator from Casio]
Jul Friden introduces the 1217 printing electromechanical calculator to limited regional markets
Jul Chip maker American Micro-systems Inc. (AMI) founded in Santa Clara, California, led by ex-General Micro-electronics co-founder Howard Bobb, and Warren Wheeler
Jul Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. (NCM) introduces the transistorized Busicom 161 electronic calculator produced by its ElectroTechnical Industries division [NCM's First Mass-Market Electronic Calculator]
Jul Mathatronics, Inc., purchased by Barry Wright Corp., becomes Mathatronics division of Barry Wright Corp.
Canon U.S.A., Inc. Incorporated
Hugle Industries, Inc. founded by William B. Hugle
Facit AB acquires AB Addo, a competing Swedish mechanical calculating machine company
Aug Western Electronics Show and Convention (WESCON), Sports Arena & Hollywood Park, Los Angeles, CA USA [23-26 Aug]
Sumlock Comptometer introduces the Anita C/XII (Mark 12) [Sumlock's First All-Transistor Calculator]
Sep ISE Electronics Corp. (Iseden) Founded, inventor of Vacuum Fluorescent Display(VFD) numerical indicator devices
Sep Casio make first export shipment of its Casio 101 electronic calculators to Australia where they are sold under Remington brand [First Casio Electronic Calculators Sold Outside Japan]
Sep Japan Electronics Show, Tokyo, Japan [20-29 Sep]
SCM (Smith-Corona-Marchant) begins fulfilling orders for the Cogito 240 and Cogito 240SR electronic calculators
Sep Casio introduces the Casio 101E (Commodore 500E)
Oct Japanese Business Machines Exhibition, Toronto, Canada
Oct Nortec Electronics Corp. incorporated, founded by Robert Norman(3/24/1927-1/21/2017) [13-Oct]
Oct Sanyo exhibits prototype DK-141 transistorized electronic calculator
Oct Sharp announces the Compet 31 (CS-31A), an update to the Compet 30 Model CS-30B using Mitsubishi-made bipolar TTL ICs to implement transistorized memory register of the CS-30B. [Sharp's First Calculator to use Integrated Circuits]
Oct Brother International (Japan) introduces its first electronic calculator, the Calther 130
Oct Litton Industries Royal Typewriter division announces plans to acquire UK typewriter manufacturer Imperial
Oct 50th Anniversary BEMA Exposition, McCormick Place, Chicago [18-20 Oct]
Texas Instruments Begins Sale of 7400-Series TTL ICs in plastic Dual-Inline (DIP) packages
Nov Wang announces availability of the 320SE 4-user Simultaneous "Time Shared" calculator system
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 15 "budget-friendly" electronic calculator
Nov Toshiba introduces the BC-1411 electronic calculator
Dec Rough prototype of Texas Instruments "Cal-Tech" electronic calculator is operational
Facit AB begins marketing electronic calculators through OEM agreement with Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Dec Rumors surface that Hewlett Packard is developing a sophisticated desktop electronic calculator (becomes the HP 9100-A, announced 3/11/1968)
Combined output of Japanese electronic desktop calculator manufacturers for 1966 is 25,532 machines

1967
Jan Hitachi introduces KK-12 (ELCA-12) transistorized electronic calculator in Japan. Imported by Friden to become the Friden 1112 [Hitachi's First Production Electronic Calculator]
Feb Canon announces it will begin sale of its new Canola 167 magnetic-drum-based calculator in Japan.
Feb Sharp begins sales of the Compet 31 (CS-31A) using IC-based memory register in Japan only
Mar International IEEE Convention & Exhibition, New York Coliseum/Hilton Hotel [20-23 Mar]
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) shows prototype 12-digit calculator using Japanese-made Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) ICs manufactured by Nippon Electric, Co., Ltd. (NEC)
Picker X-Ray Changes Name to Picker Corp.
Mar Canon introduces the Canola 151 (reduced capacity version of the Canon 161
The Floppy Disk (8-inch) invented at IBM by Alan Shugart
Commodore Business Machines enters OEM agreement with Casio for sales of Casio calculators under the Commodore brand in US & Canada
Mar Texas Instruments completes first operational "Cal-Tech" electronic calculator [29-Mar] [First IC-Based Handheld Battery-Powered Calculator (Proof of concept, not a production product)]
Mar Texas Instruments' first showing of "Cal-Tech" prototype [Prototype Battery Powered Large Scale IC-Based "Handheld" Printing Calculator]
Sharp introduces a new version of the Compet 30, the Model CS-30B, with some improvements over the early Model CS-30A.
Apr Uchida Yoko introduces the USAC 10B integrated circuit electronic desk calculator utilizing Fairchild's "µLogic" RTL (Resistor-Transistor Logic) family ICs
Sony applies with Japan's MITI for grant funding for development of Electronic Calculator utilizing Large Scale Integration ICs
Apr Masatoshi Shima joins Computer Division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co. as Computer Programmer
May Sony Corp. issues Press Release Announcing the ICC-500W Electronic Calculator. [15-May]
Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) applies to Japan's MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) for grant to fund development of Large Scale Integration miniature calculator
Facit renews its agreement with Sharp for marketing of Sharp-made calculators under the Facit brand after previous two-year agreement expires
Federico Faggin joins SGS-Fairchild in Italy
North American Aviation and Rockwell-Standard Merge to form North American Rockwell
Data Acquisition Corp. acquired by Picker Corp., placed in company's Picker Nuclear Division
Data Acquisition Corp's DAC-512 calculator re-badged and marketed as a Picker Nuclear product
Chip maker Intersil founded by Jean Hoerni to develop ICs for electronic watches
Chip maker Electronic Arrays, Mountain View, California, founded, originally as McMullen Associates
Jun Tateisi Electronics Co., (Omron) begins secret development project to create an electronic calculator within its R&D Department at direction of Mr. Tateisi
Jun First ever Consumer Electronics Show, New York
Jun Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC 10B [Uchida Yoko's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Toshiba introduces its BC-1201 electronic calculator
Jun Sony formally introduces the SOBAX ICC-500 hybrid circuit electronic calculator [Sony's First Marketed Electronic Calculator]
Jun Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-400, identical to the ICC-500, omitting Sum-of-Products function key
Jul Wang Laboratories begins publishing "The Wang Laboratories Programmer" magazine
David Shapiro leaves Mathatronics
Jul Autonetics division of North American Rockwell announces intention to enter custom MOS and SOS (Silicon on Sapphire) Large Scale Integrated Circuit manufacturing business
Casio opens first European sales office in Switzerland, begins exporting electronic calculators into Europe
Jul Wang Labs announces the Model 370 programmer for the 300-Series calculator
Aug Sharp introduces the Compet 32 (CS-32A) [14-Aug] [Sharp's first production use of Magnetic Core Memory, Bit-Serial Architecture, Multiplexed Display]
Aug Western Electronic Show & Convention (WESCON), Cow Palace, San Francisco, California [22-25 Aug]
Aug SCM introduces the Cogito 566 PR, a re-badged Diehl Combitron [24-Aug]
Aug Wang Laboratories first publicly demonstrates the 370 Programmer at WESCON show in San Francisco, CA
Aug Wang Laboratories listed publicly on the New York Stock Exchange, Announces Issue 240,000 shares of Common Stock at $12.50/share [27-Aug]
Sep Initial shipment of Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) IC-based Sharp Compet 32 calculators to US market halted at request of Mitsubishi over fears of Texas Instruments patent infringement litigation over bipolar IC technology
Sep Casio forms OEM relationship with Sperry Remington
Sep Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) Produces 250,000 Integrated Circuits in September, 1967
Sep Japan Electronics Show, Osaka Japan [28-Sep - 4-Oct]
Oct Japanese Business Machines Show at Japanese Trade Center, Chicago, IL [9-13 Oct]
Oct 9th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) Show, New York [23-27 Oct]
Oct Friden introduces the 1217 electromechanical printing calculator to the US market
Oct 7th Annual Japan Business Machine Show, Tokyo, Japan [25-28 Oct]
Sumlock Comptometer adds Wanderer-Werke Conti printing electronic calculator to its line of calculating devices
Oct Masatoshi Shima transfers to calculator design division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Oct Casio AL-1000 transistorized calculator debuts [Casio's First Programmable Electronic Calculator]
Nov 21st Annual NEREM show, Boston War Memorial Auditorium [1-3 Nov]
Nov James (Phil) Ferguson leaves position as General Manager of Philco-Ford Microelectronics to spend more time with family
Nov Cintra founded by Irwin Wunderman in his garage, manufacturing digital photonic measurement instruments
Nov Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. registers trade name "Denon"
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces the Busicom 141 transistorized calculator, a 14-digit version of its original 16-digit Busicom 161
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed Busicom 162, which was eventually marketed in North America by
>>>   National Cash Register (NCR) as the Model 18-2) calculator, [NCM's First IC-Based Electronic Calculator]
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(NCM) introduces the small-scale DTL IC-based Busicom 202 CRT-display calculator, designed by Wyle Laboratories under contract to NCM
Toshio Iue, Founder/CEO of Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd, steps down, relinquishes CEO role to his brother, Yuro
Nov Monroe Calculator Co. Holds Sales Convention at Diplomat Hotel, Hollywood, Florida [26-Nov to 1-Dec]
Dec Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) introduces Compet 16 (CS-16A) [Sharp's First use of Japanese-made MOS Integrated Circuits in Production Electronic Calculator]

1968
Jan Sanyo announces entry into electronic calculator marketplace with three machines to debut in early spring, 1968
Hayakawa Electric's (Later, Sharp) Tadashi Sasaki arranges $40M Yen (Approx. $110,000 US) "under-the-table" funding to Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom)
Feb Federico Faggin moves from Italy to California to work at Fairchild Semiconductor on development of Silicon-Gate MOS integrated circuit technology
Feb Singer/Friden internally announces the small/medium-scale DTL/TTL IC-based 1150 printing calculator at MSRP of $1,495 [8-Feb]
Mar The American Calculator Corp. of Dallas, TX incorporated [6-Mar]
Mar Dr. An Wang, CEO of Wang Laboratories, given sneak preview of Hewlett Packard 9100A electronic calculator at
>>>   calculator at the IEEE Conference in New York, NY by Hewlett Packard founder, Bill Hewlett(5/20/1913-1/12/2001)
Mar Hewlett Packard (HP) formally announces the amazing 9100A electronic calculator [HP's First Electronic Calculator, Revolutionary Capabilities] [11-Mar]
Mar Early Production Hewlett Packard 9100A first shown to limited audience at IEEE Conference in New York [March 18-21]
Mar Singer and General Precision Equipment Corp. (GPE) agree in principal for Singer to acquire GPE [26-Mar]
Mar Singer/`Friden internally announces the 1151 programmable printing desktop calculator at MSRP of $1,795
Mar Canon introduces the Canola 130S electronic calculator
Mar Wang Laboratories introduces Model 380 programmer console for 300-Series calculators at New York IEEE Conference [20-Mar]
Japanese domestic integrated circuit production surpasses number of imported ICs
Apr ElectroTechnical Industries (ETI) (not to be confused with Japan's Electrotechnical
>>>   Laboratory) established for Electronic Calculator development & manufacturing, associated with Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) Tokyo, Japan
Apr Canon 161S and Canola 163 calculators announced in Japan [1-Apr]
Apr Burroughs signs agreement with Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) for Sharp to design & manufacture calculators for Burroughs
Apr Harold Koplow begins employment at Wang Laboratories as calculator application programmer (Wang 300-Series)
Apr Agreement forged for Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) (later Nixdorf) to purchase business-machines division of Wanderer-Werke AG for 17.2M DM
Apr Tokyo Shibaura Mfg. Co. (Toshiba) introduces its stylish BC-1412 transistorized electronic calculator
Apr Tokyo Shibaura Mfg. Co. (Toshiba) introduces its high-end transistorized desktop electronic calculator, the BC-1621 transistorized electronic calculator
Apr Sanyo introduces ICC-141 and ICC-161 calculators using MOS shift register IC made by Philco-Ford (formerly General Micro-electronics)
Apr Sanyo introduces its ICC-121 and ICC-141 calculators utilizing incandescent-lit mosaic display
Apr Wang Laboratories announces the 379-5 Output Writer, a modified IBM Selectric typewriter used for programmed output from the 370 and 380 Programmer consoles
Realtone Electronics Corp. formally changes company name to Soundesign Corp., AMEX stock symbol SON
May Canon begins sales of the Small-Scale IC-based Canon 163(US $958) and Canon 161S(US $764) in Japan [1-May]
May Wang 362E introduced
May General Precision Equipment Co. and Singer Co. announce merger [10-May]
May Casio introduces the Casio 152 calculator
May Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) travels to US seeking IC manufacturer to layout and fabricate LSI ICs for miniaturized electronic calculator
Tyco Laboratories, Inc. acquires magnetostrictive delay line manufacturer Digital Devices
Wang Laboratories acquires substantial share of disk drive manufacturer Digital Information Storage Corp.
Uchida Yoko becomes exclusive distributor of Seiko electronic calculators in Japanese market
David Takagishi joins Cintra as electronics engineer on design team for the Cintra 909 calculator
Computer Design Corp. founded, spin-off of Wyle Laboratories Calculator Products Division
Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. and Nippon Calculating Machin Co.(NCM) joint venture formed to market NCM electronic calculators under the Busicom brand calculating machines in North America
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of gas-discharge display devices
Facit AB builds a large new calculator factory in Sweden
Wang Laboratories rattled by rumor that Digital Equipment Corp.(DEC) is working on developing a "Desk Calculator". The rumored calculator actually turned out to be the extremely popular DEC PDP-11 16-bit mini-computer
May Japanese Business Machine Show, Harumi Fairground, Tokyo (14 Manufacturers, 34 Models of electronic calculators)
May Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) introduces the Compet 50, Model CS-50A Printing Electronic Calculator [Sharp's first Printing Electronic Calculator]
Jun Ray Holt & Steve Geller of Garrett AiResearch begin top secret US Government project to develop CADC (Central Air Data Computer) implemented with a very sophisticated MOS Large-Scale Integration(LSI) chip set, for the new Navy F-14A "Tom Cat" Jet Fighter
Jun Philco-Ford Corp. shuts down production of the history-making Victor 3900, the first MOS/LSI electronic calculator
Sharp introduces the Compet 22 (Model CS-22A)
Dr. An Wang granted US Patent on logarithm-generating circuits initially used in Wang Labs' LOCI-1 and LOCI-2 electronic calculators
Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) and Rockwell/Autonetics (later, Rockwell Semiconductor) form LSI calculator chip set development alliance
Jul Tateisi Electronics Co., R&D department completes secret delveopment projecproducing a prototype electronic calculator designated as OMRAC 777
Jul Compucorp incorporated as business unit of Computer Design Corporation, with Elmer Easton(President), Norman J. Grannis(VP), Roger Keenan(Finance), Kasper Terhorst(Director) and Cynthia Wells(Secretary) as principals [5-Jul]
Jul Singer Corp. acquires General Precision Equipment Corp.
Jul Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore found "N M Electronics", the beginnings of Intel Corp. [18-Jul]
Jul Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-600 calculator
Jul Canon introduces the Canola 161S and Canola 163 calculators in USA
Jul Wang Laboratories closes purchase of Philip Hankins, Inc. (PHI). Dave Moros from PHI instrumental in development of future Wang Calculator architectures
Jul Singer Corp. completes acquisition of General Precision Equipment Corp. (including Librascope, Inc., The Kearfott Co., Inc., and Link Flight Simulation)
Jul Hitachi introduces the KK-22 (ELCA-22) calculator. Sold by Friden as the Friden EC-1113
Jul National Cash Register (NCR) signs agreement with Nippon Calculating Machine Co. for sale of NCM manufactured calculators under NCR brand name in North America
Brother Industries acquires UK-based Jones Sewing Machine Co.
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. creates Business Computer Corp., a.k.a. Busicom USA, for US market expansion
Aug NM Electronics renamed as Intel [6-Aug]
Aug Western Electronic Show and Convention (WESCON), Los Angeles, CA [20-23 Aug]
Okaya Electric Industries Co., Tokyo Japan, introduces a new cold-cathode segmented display tube it calls "Elfin", challenging Burroughs' Nixie tube for calculator displays
Aug Nippon Calculating Machine Co./Busicom introduces the Model 162C electronic calculator
Sep Denon announces the DEC-61A4 electronic calculator [Denon's First Electronic Calculator]
Sep Japanese Electronics Show, Tokyo, Japan [17-23 Sep]
Sep Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) announces the historic EP-101 digital printer, providing a simple, compact, and
>>>   easily-interfaced printing solution for electronic calculators and any other device that required (mostly numeric) printing capability in a small package.
Sep Hewlett Packard 9100A documented in HP's corporate technology publication, the Hewlett Packard Journal September, 1968
Sep Wang Laboratories stock begins trading on the American Stock Exchange [10-Sep]
Oct Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) formally closes purchase of business machines division Wanderer-Werke AG [1-Oct]
Oct Wang Laboratories introduces 360SE four-user simultaneous electronics package [Last Wang Labs 300-Series Calculator]
Oct Computer Design Corp. [CDC](spun off from Wyle Laboratories) and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. [NCM] forge agreement for CDC to develop advanced calculators for NCM
Oct Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) renamed Nixdorf Computer AG
Tadashi Sasaki (Hayakawa Electric/Sharp) meets with Robert Noyce and Bob Graham (Intel) and Yoshio Kojima (Nippon Calculating Machine Co./Busicom)
Victor Comptometer acquires exclusive distribution rights from Nixdorf Computer AG for sale of the Wanderer Conti printing electronic calculator as the Victor 1500
Nov Tateisi Electronics Co. establishes trade name of Omron Tateisi Electronics Co.
Dec Toshiba introduces its BC-1401 calculator [Toshiba's First MOS IC-Based Calculator]
Dec Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC-22B electronic calculator
Dec Passing of Kiyoshi Ichimura, Founder of Riken Kankoshi Co., Ltd. (later Ricoh Co., Ltd.) [16-Dec]

1969
Jan Litton Industries acquires German typewriter maker Triumph Adler
Jan Singer Co. board of directors changes status of Friden, Inc. from fully-owned subsidiary to the Friden Division of Singer Co. [Jan 1]
Jan MOS Technology, Inc. incorporated as spin-off of Allen-Bradley to second-source calculator ICs made by Texas Instruments [16-Jan]
Jan Wang introduces 200-Series "business" calculators based on 300-Series machines
Jan Sony introduces the ICC-500A, a cost-reduced version of the ICC-500
Jan Wang announces CP-2 Card Programmer for 200/300-Series calculators
Feb Hugle Industries, Inc. establishes Japanese subsidiary Hugle Electronics, Inc. in Tokyo, Japan
Feb U.S. Patent 3,430,095 granted to to Jack J. Bialik(7/20/1924-1/4/2010), Dale P. Masher(4/14/1929-3/30/2014),
>>>   and Bill W. Stevens, all of Stanford Research Institute, for display subsystem developed for Friden EC-130 electronic calculator [25-Feb]
Hitachi New York, Ltd. renamed Hitachi America, Ltd.
Feb The Singer Co. formally adopts a new logo for Friden, with a larger SINGER with "FRIDEN DIVISION" in smaller letters beneath
Feb Friden announces market availability of the Hitachi-made Friden 1113
Feb Wang 700 calculator announced, not actually available until early 1970
Feb Four Phase Systems, Inc. incorporated, founded by Lee Boysel and associates
Massimo Rinaldi leaves IME for form new company building computer systems, Industria Sistemi Elettronici (INSEL), SpA, in Rome.
Feb Busicom (ElectroTechnical Industries) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed Busicom 207 and 2017 punched-card programmable electronic calculators
Feb Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) approves Hayakawa Electric's (Sharp) request for funding
>>>   assistance to develop a Large Scale Integration (LSI)-based miniature electronic calculator
Feb Japan's MITI approves Hayakawa Electric's request to engage Autonetics division of North American Rockwell
>>>   to develop custom MOS LSI ICs for a new miniature calculator
Mar 1969 IEEE International Convention and Exhibition, New York, NY [24-27 Mar]
Mar Autonetics Division of North American Rockwell receives $30M from Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) for
>>>   LSI Calculator integrated circuit development, some of which comes from Japanese Government (MITI) grant to Hayakawa Electric
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) shows prototype "miniature calculator" using 11 Hitachi-made MOS/LSI Integrated Circuits at IEEE Expo in New York (precursor to the historical Sharp QT-8D)
Mar Wang Laboratories, Inc., acquires Medical Systems and Data Corp. of Boston, MA
Bob Cole(Fairchild) and Don Borror(GM-e/Philco Microelectronics) start up IC mask making & foundry Cartesian, Inc.
Union Carbide Electronics' MOS Devices Division(San Diego, CA) sold to Solitron Devices, Inc.
Amidst increasing competition, IME begins phasing out production of its electronic calculators, closes factory
R.ohm (Toyo Electronics Industry, Japan) begins development of Integrated Circuit technology
North American Philips Corp. formed as merger of Consolidated Electric Co., and North American Philips Co., Inc.
ISE Electronics licenses Vacuum Fluorescent Display technology to Futaba Denshi
Mar Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. shows prototype of the Omron 1210
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. forges secret agreement with Wyle Laboratories for development of Large Scale Integration IC-based calculator chip set (before engaging Intel)
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D introduced in US at New York IEEE trade show
Apr VEB Kombinat Robotron formed as a large conglomerate of German Office & Data Processing Companies [1-Apr]
Apr General Digital Founded by Alvin Phillips (later Western Digital) [23-Apr]
Apr Intel introduces its first product, the Intel 3101 bipolar 64-bit Random Access Memory (RAM) chip
Apr First operating prototype of Top Secret AMI-Fabricated MOS LSI Microprocessor Chip set for US Navy F-14A Tom Cat Fighter Jet Control System (CADC)
Apr Provisional agreement between Intel and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM) signed for Intel to develop calculator chip set for NCM
Apr SCM Cogito 414 electronic calculator introduced [23-Apr]
May Sharp announces the Compet 361, Model CS-361), first of a series of Compet 361 electronic calculators [16-May]
May Friden announces the CRT-display Friden 1160 electronic calculator to its sales force [20-May]
May Wang Laboratories introduces model 301 Column Printer for Wang 200/300-Series calculators
Casio announces the programmable AL-2000 electronic calculator
May Uchida Yoko exits electronic calculator marketplace after only two years
May Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) shows revolutionary EP-101 printer at 38th Business Show in Tokyo
May Casio introduces the Casio 121-A/AS-A calculator
May Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) founded in Sunnyvale, CA
Jun Mostek founded in Worcester, Massachusetts, by ex-Texas Instruments employees with significant funding from Sprague Electric Co.
Jun Barry Wright Corp. announces negotiations to sell Mathatronics calculator division to a small investment group
Jun Top Secret project to develop what is arguably the first MOS LSI Microprocessor Chip set (three chips), the MP944 CADC (Central Air Data Computer), developed by Garrett AiResearch and fabricated by American Micro-systems, Inc., used in US Navy F-14A Tom Cat Fighter, is completed
Jun SCM Introduces the 1016PR Programmable Calculator, $2,495 [18-Jun]
Jun Sony introduces the ICC-510 Electronic Calculator
Jun The Friden division of Singer Co. announces it will build a new plant for electronic calculators in Albuquerque, NM
Jun M. Shima, H. Masuda, and S. Takayama from Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(NCM) visit Intel
>>>   concerning development of proposed MOS LSI calculator chipset from NCM logic design
Jun Annual Consumer Electronics Show, New York Hilton Hotel [28 Jun-1 Jul]
Jul Matsushita begins first shipments of an electronic calculator it manufactures for Olympia, to be sold by Olympia in its markets as the Olympia ICR-412
Jul Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo, passes away at age 66 [16-Jul]
Jul Casio's AL-2000 Programmable Calculator available for sale
Jul Dictaphone Corp. announces entry into the electronic calculator business, marketing two calculators manufactured by Sanyo under Dictaphone badge [29-Jul]
Aug Sanyo reaches licensing agreement with chipmaker General Instrument to import, and later to locally manufacture, MOS LSI calculator chipset
Aug Founding of Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) by Ed Roberts and three other partners
Aug Hitachi introduces the KK-24 (ELKA-24) in Japan. Sold by Friden as the Friden 1114 under OEM contract with Hitachi
Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 100,000 unit mark
Victor Comptometer sells its electronics division to Nixdorf Computer AG
Aug WESCON trade show, San Francisco [19-22 Aug]
Aug Introduction of the Monroe 820 CRT-display electronic calculator [Monroe's First IC-Based Calculator]
Aug Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) shows EP-101 drum printer at WESCON show
Canon Camera Co., Inc. changes name to "Canon, Inc."
Sep Schneider Radio-Tèlèvision Electronique, Ivry-sur-Seine, France, introduces the EXA(Exactronique) 210
>>> electronic calclator at the International Office Equipment and Computer show in Paris
Sep Masatoshi Shima(Nippon Calculating Machine Co./Busicom) returns to Intel to check on progress of calculator chipset development
Sep Intel engineers propose a single-chip general purpose CPU as an alternative to
>>>   Nippon Calculating Machine's complex multi-chip calculator architecture
Sep Intel introduces its first static 256-bit MOS Random Access Memory IC, the 1101
Sep Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces production version of the Omron 1210 [Omron's First Electronic Calculator]
William Kahn, Roy Reach (both founders) leave Mathatronics
Oct Japan Electronics Show, Osaka [1-7 Oct]
Oct Sony publishes news release stating it will demonstrate its first programmable electronic calculator, the SOBAX ICC-2500, at BEMA show [22-Oct]
Oct 11th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) show, New York Coliseum, October 26-30
Oct Sony introduces the ICC-610 calculator at BEMA show [26-Oct]
Oct Sony formally introduces its first programmable calculator, the ICC-2500, at BEMA show [26-Oct]
Oct Prototype Wang 700 Advanced Programming Calculator shown at BEMA show
Oct Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi form strategic business alliance
Oct Brother Procal 514 electronic calculator introduced
Oct Hewlett Packard 9100B introduced
Oct Barry Wright Corp. announces failure of deal to sell Mathatronics division to private investors
Oct Canon and Texas Instruments enter into agreement involving development of "Miniature Electronic Calculators"
Fairchild introduces the first static RAM IC, the 4100, storing 256 bits
Nov 23rd Annual Northeast Electronics Research and Engineering Meeting (NEREM), Boston, MA [5-7 Nov]
Nov Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-520 calculator
Nov Matshushita Communication Industrial Co., Ltd. (later, Panasonic) introduces the National PANAC-12W electronic calculator [Matsushita's First Electronic Calculator]
Nov Friden introduces the Hitachi-manufactured Friden EC-1114 electronic calculator [5-Nov]
Nov Hitachi introduces the KK-32 (ELKA-32) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1115
Nov Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) establishes Sharp Electronics U.K. Ltd. in Manchester, U.K.
Nov Sophisicated 909 Scientist electronic calculator announced by Cintra [Cintra's First Electronic Calculator]
Commodore Business Machines moves corporate headquarters to Santa Clara, CA, from Toronto, Canada
Dec Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D calculator debuts in Japan utilizing Autonetics(Rockwell) made four chip LSI chipset [World's second (and first widely successful) electronic calculator with entirely MOS/LSI(Large Scale Integration) logic]
Dec M. Shima of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Busicom) submits draft specifications for
>>>   for proposed complex LSI calculator chipset to Intel for development of chips
Dec M. Shima returns home to Japan after Intel visit
Dec Barry Wright Corp. shutters Mathatronics division, marking end of Mathatron calculator production/sales [30-Dec]
Estimated world total sales value of electronic calculators for 1969 in US Dollars: $46.8 Billion
Japanese electronic calculator firms ship 441,000 calculators that sold for total of $146.4M world-wide in 1969
US domestic sales of electronic calculators for 1969 is $46.8M

1970
Jan Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd., changes name to Sharp Corporation [1-Jan]
Jan MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Incorporated
Jan Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces the Omron 1200 electronic calculator [21-Jan]
Jan Nippon Columbia (Denon) introduces the DEC-411 electronic calculator
Jan Ricoh Co, Ltd. founds Ricoh of America, a wholly-owned US subsidiary, located in New Jersey
Feb Wang Laboratories begins regular production of Wang 700-Series calculators
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of Vacuum Fluorescent Display Devices after licensing technology from ISE
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. ceases manufacture of electronic calculators
Feb Friden introduces the Hitachi-made Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator [4-Feb]
Feb Formal agreement signed between Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(NCM) a.k.a. Busicom, and Intel,
>>>   for development of complex chipset based on logic designed by NCM for calculator applications [6-Feb]
Feb Wang Laboratories announces the Wang 3300 Timeshared Computer System
Mar Autonetics division of North American Rockwell gains standards approval of 42-pin "Zig Zag" IC package
Mar Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) submits final specs to Intel for proposed complex chipset to serve as controller for an electronic calculator
Mar Wang Laboratories formally introduces the Wang 720A/B Calculators
Mar Sharp QT-8D begins sales in US
Apr Japanese Electronics Show, Tokyo
Apr Federico Faggin leaves Fairchild Semiconductor, hired by Intel to work on "Busicom Project" for Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom)
Apr M. Shima of Busicom returns to Intel to find progress on complex calculator chipset
>>>   lagging behind expectations. Joins Intel development team and drives forward progress [7-Apr]
Apr Light Emitting Diode (LED), and later, calculator manufacturer Litronix founded by George E. Smith and six associates
Apr Friden begins customer deliveries of the Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator
Apr Canon announces the Canon Pocketronic "handheld" printing calculator using Texas Instruments LSI chips
Apr Bill Hewlett (HP co-founder) and Barney Oliver(9100 calculator project manager) gift a
>>>   HP 9100 calculator to noted Science and Science Fiction author Arthur C. Clarke
Apr Founding of General Digital by Alvin Philips, formerly of Motorola (beginning of Western Digital) [23-Apr]
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed 207P and 2017P versions of the 207/2017 calculators with interface for an external impact printer
May Casio establishes its own US sales company, Casio, Inc., in New York
May Sanyo announces the ICC-0082D "mini-calculator" with rechargeable Sanyo-developed Nickel
>>>   Cadmium battery pack and Nixie tube display in Japan. Uses four-chip MOS/LSI chipset developed and fabricated by General Instrument in US
May Mostek's VP of Marketing (Harvey "Berry" Cash) visits Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM) in Japan concerning NCM's request for Mostek to develop
>>>   MOS Large Scale Integration (LSI) single chip calculator IC based on NCM's logic design (becomes the MK5010, First Calculator on a Chip)
Hewlett Packard Corp. ordered to pay Olivetti $900,000 in royalties for violation of Olivetti's Programma 101 patents by HP 9100A/9100B calculators
Burroughs introduces the Panaplex planar gas-discharge display panel
American Micro-systems, Inc. (AMI) moves IC manufacturing facilities to Pocatello, Idaho
Jun Nippon Columbia (Denon) introduces the DEC-521 electronic calculator
Jun Wang Laboratories introduces its 100-Series calculators
Jun Japanese electronic calculator manufacturers produce 519,000 units worth $142M in first half of 1970,
>>>   exceeding total 1969 production by 78,000 units and only $4.4M shy of total 1969 revenue.
Jul North American Rockwell (NAR) spins NAR Microelectronics Inc. out of is Autonetics division
Pico Electronics Ltd. founded in Glenrothes, Scotland, by skilled group of MOS IC design
>>>   engineers from General Instrument intent on developing a single chip calculator IC
Aug Friden introduces the Hitachi-made Friden EC-1116 electronic calculator [5-Aug]
Friden's new electronic calculator manufacturing plant in Albuquerque, NM up and running
Aug Logic simulation of Nippon Calculating Machines' microprocessor designed and fabricated by Intel completed, only one logic error found
Aug Nippon Calculating Macine Co. shows prototype Busicom Model 141-DA using Japanese-produced Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) (Never went to production)
Aug WESCON Trade Show, Hollywood Park, Los Angeles, CA [25-28 Aug]
Monroe signs OEM agreement with Computer Design Corp. to market calculators designed and built by Computer Design Corporation
Sep Sony Corporation shares listed on New York Stock Exchange
Sep Sanyo introduces the ICC-0082D "mini-calculator" in the US [7-Sep]
Sep Casio publically traded on secondary market of Tokyo Stock Exchange
Oct Intel announces the 1103 1024-bit dynamic RAM IC, first commercially used in the Hewlett Packard 9810A [First Commercially-Available DRAM Chip]
Oct Matsushita introduces the National (Matsushita's trade name for electronic products) PANAC-1202 (JE-202) electronic calculator for sale in Japan
Oct Canon Pocketronic begins sales in Japan [First MOS-LSI Handheld, Rechargeable Battery Powered, Printing Calculator] [Texas Instruments' Cal-Tech was proof-of-concept]
Oct Nippon Calculating Machine Co. informally accepts Intel's single-chip CPU proposal for its new calculator concept
Nov Busicom's Masatoshi Shima returns to Japan after working with Intel design team focused on developing
>>>   developing "CPU on a chip" as basis for calculator (became Intel 4004 microprocessor and Busicom 141-PF calculator)
Nov Electronic Arrays announces six-chip calculator (S-100) chipset for $158.46 for all six chips [First Publically Available Calculator Chipset]
Nov Hewlett Packard begins design of HP-35 Handheld Scientific calculator
Nov Mostek successfully tests first "calculator on a chip" IC developed for Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom)
Nov International Calculating Machines (ICM) founded as subsidiary of Electronic Arrays
Nov Canon introduces the Canon L-121 desktop calculator [Canon's first calcualtor to utilize MOS/LSI ICs]
Nov Casio 121-B/AS-B calculator introduced
Dec U.S. Patent 3,546,676 granted to Robert Ragen of Friden, for design of Friden EC-130
Dec Wang Laboratories common stock begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange [22-Dec]
Industrial Research Magazine names the Cintra 909 as one of its "IR 100" most innovative products of 1970
US domestic sales of electronic desk calculators: $37.8M
Japanese-made electronic calculators account for 70% of calculator sales in US, amounting to ~$120M

1971
Jan Hewlett Packard introduces instrumentation system for 9100A and 9100B calculators
Jan Mostek begins volume production of "Calculator on a Chip", the MK5010, developed exclusively for Nippon Calculating
>>>   Machine Co. (NCM) a.k.a. Busicom [First Single-Chip Calculator IC]
Jan Sanyo introduces re-design of the ICC-0081D calculator using 7-Segment gas-discharge display tubes instead of Nixie tubes
Jan Sanyo introduces the ICC-0082 calculator with built-in power supply/charger versus external power pack of ICC-0081D
Jan Sharp EL-8, also known as the ELSI-8, introduced
Jan Victor Comptometer internally declares the Victor 14-321 and Victor 14-322 electronic calculators obsolete
Jan Nippon Calculating Machine Co. completes breadboard prototype of printing calculator using small/medium scale
&nsbp; TTL ICs following the design of Intel's proposed microcontroller
Jan Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces first "pocket" calculator, the "Handy" LE-120A, using Mostek MK6010 single-chip calculator IC [First Calculator to Utilize Single Chip Calculator IC]
Intel begins pilot production of 4004 microprocessor and peripheral chips exclusively for Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Jan Wang Laboratories announces its 500-Series calculators
Feb First operating Intel 4004 microprocessor chip
Feb Philco-Ford announces shutdown of microelectronics division
International Calculating Machines introduces the ICM 816 calculator using the Electronics Arrays S-100 six-chip calculator chipset
Feb Canon Pocketronic begins sales in USA
Feb Sharp EL-8 begins sales in US
Mar Michael Cochran Leaves Cintra to join Texas Instruments
Mar Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi dissolve business partnership
Mar Wang Labs delivers first 3300 Time Shared Computer System (Weymouth South High School, Weymouth, MA)
Remains of Mathatronics liquidated
Victor 1800-Series calculators introduced
London-based calculating machine distributor Muldivo Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. closes its doors
Hewlett Packard 9810A introduced
Apr Busicom receives first production 4004 and support chips from Intel use in building prototype printing calculator
Apr Casio introduces the Casio AL-3000 printing programmable electronic calculator
Apr First operating prototype of printing office calculator using Intel 4004 microprocessor completed by Nippon Calculating Machine Co. [Became Busicom 141-PF]
May Introduction of the Omron 800 calculator [New Low Price Benchmark for AC-Powered Desktop]
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. begins volume production of the Intel 4004-based Busicom 141-PF calculator
SCM introduces the Marchant I (also known as the F-80) battery-operated portable Nixie Tube display calculator utilizing 2-chip AMI-manufactured LSI chipset
May Nippon Calclating Machine Co., under Busicom brand name, begins sale its LE-120A calculator using Mostek's Single-Chip calculator IC [First Handheld, Single-Chip, LED-Display Calculator]
May Intel and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. renegotiate 4004 microprocessor contract, allowing Intel to sell chips to others
May Casio introduces the Casio AS-C
May Tektronix announces purchase of Cintra, Inc. from Physics International [7-May]
May Jack Murdock, co-founder of Tektronix, passes away in mishap with his seaplane [16-May]
Jun Sharp begins sale of the EL-8M, follow-on to the EL-8 which adds memory function
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 700C and 720C calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 708 Memory Expansion Controller for 700-Series calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces 709 Dual Cassette Drive peripheral for the 700-Series calculators
Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. begins production of SANAC magnetic card reader/writer device
General Digital changes name to Western Digital
Jul Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Busicom) and National Cash Register negotiate OEM agreement
>>>   for NCR to sell the Busicom 141-PF calculator under the NCR badge in North America
Jul General Digital renamed Western Digital
Jul Purchase of Cintra, Inc. by Tektronix is completed
Jul Michael Cochran validates functionality of first TMS-100 microcontroller-based calculator chip [4-Jul]
Jul Tektronix announces the rebadged Cintra 909 and 911 calculators as the Tektronix 909 and Tektronix 911
Aug Tektronix announces price reduction and upgraded base memory in Tektronix 909 and Tektronix 911 calculators
Aug Hugle Electronics, Inc., Established in Tokyo, Japan as part of US Hugle Industries, Inc.
Aug American Micro-systems, Inc. (AMI) announces agreement to acquire majority interest in desktop calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc. of Cupertino, CA
Sep Texas Instruments announces the TMS1802, TI's First Calculator on a Chip (later becomes TMS0100-series) [17-Sep]
Sep Masatoshi Shima leaves Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Busicom) for new position at Ricoh
Sep Intel successfully negotiates removal of exclusive sales agreement with Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Busicom) on Intel 4004
Sep Omron inks $2M contract with Nortec Electronics Corp. for development of MOS/LSI chipset for low-cost "personal" calculators
Sep Casio AS-8A introduced
Sep Sony introduces the Sobax ICC-88 Rechargeable Portable Calculator using Electronic Arrays chipset
Sep AMI completes acquisition of calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc.
Sep Bowmar/ALI, Inc. ships their first pocket-sized electronic calculator, the 901B, utilizing TI calculator-on-a-chip
Oct Busicom introduces the Model 141PF printing desktop calculator [First calculator to utilize single-chip microprocessor (Intel 4004)]
Nov Masatoshi Shima Leaves Ricoh to go to work for Intel at request of Bob Noyce
Nov Popular Electronics publishes article introducing MITS' $179 calculator kit, the MITS 816, based on Electronic Arrays low-cost six-chip calculator chipset
Nov Intel announces general availability of 4004 microprocessor [15-Nov]
Dec Wang Laboratories announces Wang 600-Series calculators
Sales of elecronic calculators in US during 1971 totals $131M
Total number of electronic calculators in Soviet Union (USSR): 45,000

1972
Jan General Electric closes down its integrated circuit business
Jan Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-35 handheld scientific calculator [World's First Handheld Scientific Electronic calculator]
Feb Rapid Data Systems & Equipment, Ltd. introduces the Rapidman 800 pocket calculator
Feb Wang Labs announces SWAP calculator user group (implementation in June '72)
Feb Wang Labs announces Model 711 I/O Writer
Feb Casio fx-1 introduced [Casio's first scientific electronic calculator]
Apr Varadyne, Inc. spins off Veradyne Systems unit which manufacturers electronic calculator equipment
Apr Texas Instruments opens calculator manufacturing plant in Fort Walton Beach, Florida
Apr Intel announces the 8008 microprocessor chip, based on 1201 microprocessor developed for Computer Terminal Corp.
Apr Commodore Business Machines provides guarantee of bank loan for Varadyne Systems, Inc.
Apr Birmingham, UK-based business equipment firm Fonadeck International purchases assets of closed-down Muldivo Calculating Machine Co., Ltd for an undisclosed price.
Apr Commodore Business Machines obtains option to acquire 75-90% of Varadyne Systems, Inc. from Varadyne, Inc.
Facit AB begins large scale layoffs as calculator business suffers major losses
Diehl Corp. ends production of electromechanical calculators
May The American Calculator Corp. dissolved [8-May]
May Casio AS-8D Introduced
Jun Wang Laboratories implements "SWAP" (Soceity for Wang Applications and Programs) User Group
Jun MITS Model 1440 calculator introduced in Radio-Electronics magazine
Jun Casio introduces the R-3 Printing Electronic Calculator
Hewlett Packard 9820A introduced
Hewlett Packard 9830A introduced [First desktop calculator to use the BASIC computer programming language]
Production of Curta calculators ends
Aug Casio Mini introduced [New Low Price Benchmark for Four Function Handheld]
Aug Intel introduces the 8008 Microprocessor [24-Aug] [Intel's Second Microprocessor]
Aug Rockwell Microelectronics introduces the PPS-4 microprocessor [Rockwell's First Microprocessor]
Aug Sharp EL-801 handheld calculator introduced [First use of CMOS calculator on a chip made by Toshiba]
Rockwell International acquires Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. and Sumlock Comptometer
Sep Rockwell International acquires Unicom Systems, Inc. from American Micro-systems, Inc.
Sep Texas Instruments announces entry into the electronic calculator marketplace with the TI-2500, TI 3000, and TI 3500 calculators. [20-Sep]
Facit AB and subsdiary Addo AB acquired by consumer and industrial products conglomerate Electrolux
Wang 400-Series calculators introduced
Dec Micro Instrumentation & Telemetry Systesm (MITS) introduces its most advanced desktop electronic calculator, the MITS 7400

1973
Feb Hewlett Packard HP-80 introduced [First Financial Handheld]
Feb Casio introduces the Casio "Mini", Model CM-601
Mar MITS 7440 calculator introduced in Radio Electronics magazine
Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (BEMA) becomes CBEMA, adding computer manufacturers to the mix
North American Rockwell and Rockwell Manufacturing merge to form Rockwell International
May Hewlett Packard markets, through Japanese subsidiary Yokogawa Hewlett-Packard, a ROM block for the HP 9810 calulator that prints in Japanese Katakana character set
May Sharp introduces the Elsi Mate EL-805 [15-May]  [First Battery-Powered "Pocket" Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Calculator]
May Sony announces its exit from electronic calculator market [31-May]
May Hewlett Packard HP-46 introduced
May Wang Laboratories begins shipping the 2200 "personal computer"
May Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) Introduces the 324 Scientist and 344 Statistician "portable microcomputers" (Compucorp's term)
May Hewlett Packard HP-45 handheld calculator introduced
Jul Sony terminates manufacture of electronic calculators [31-Jul]
Aug Tektronix Model 21 and 31 calculators introduced. Model 21 priced at $1,850, and Model 31 at $2,850 [2-Aug]
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the 9821A calculator for $4,975 in base form
Japan's combined output of electronic calculators exceeds ten million units for the year 1973
Research firm Creative Strategies study reveals that retail sales of electronics calculators in 1973 reached $1-billion mark
Factory-cost of electronic calculators produced in the US in 1973 amounts to $530M

1974
Jan Hewlett Packard HP-65 introduced [First Programmable Handheld Electronic Calculator]
Feb Singer/Friden announces the 1202 and 1203 calculators
Feb Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) files for bankruptcy
Feb Tektronix Model 21 and Model 31 calculators launched in UK
Mar Tektronix announces the 31/53 Instrumentation System based on its Model 31 Calculator
Apr Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor
Apr Unexpected drop market-wide in sales of electronic calculators marks beginning of shakeout in industry
Jun U.S. Patent 3,819,921 granted to Texas Instruments' Jack Kilby & team for TI Cal-Tech calculator
Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) sells 24% share of voting stock to Litton Industries (Monroe)
Jul Litton Industries loans Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) $1M
Aug Tektronix announces Model 152 BCD Interface for Model 31 calculator
Aug Monroe division of Litton Industries assumes sole distributorship of electronic calculators and peripheral equipment
>>>   manufactured by Computer Design Corporation under the Compucorp brand. The agreement states that the Compucorp division of Computer Design Corp. will
>>>   cease all marketing/ sales & service of Compucorp-branded calculators, with all personnel involved with Compucorp becoming Monroe employees. [2-Aug]
Smith-Corona Marchant files complaint against Brother Industries, Ltd. of Japan for dumping inexpensive portable typewriters into the US Market
Total sales of Casio electronic calculators worldwide passes ten- million unit mark
Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. purchases rights to the "Busicom" brand name from Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Motorola introduces the 6800 8-bit microprocessor
Nippon Calculating Machine Co.(Japan) and Busicom Corp. cease operations after bankruptcy
The remains of CDS Technology, Inc, (MOS Technology) revitalized with arrival of four ex-Motorola senior engineers and investors
National Cash Register Co. changes name to "NCR Corp."
Computer Design Corp. (Compucorp) shuts down its dealer/distributor network and OEM agreements per August agreement with Monroe division of Litton Industries
Estimated world-wide production of electronic calculators in 1974: 34-Million units
US production value of calculator ICs in 1974: Basic Single-Chip, $18.6M; Scientific Single-Chip, $10.6M;
>>>   Special Function Single Chip, $3.5M; Chipsets, $2.7M
1974 sales of electronic calculators in Japan & Europe: Basic pocket calculators: $145.6M; Office calculators: $48.9M; Scientific calculators: $23M
Sales of calculator chipsets produced in Japan & Europe for 1974: $108.3M
Estimated factory-cost of 12.2 million electronic calculators produced in the US in 1974: $580M
US sales of desktop calculators in 1974: Programmable: $170M; Non-Programmable: $375M

1975
Jan Texas Instruments shutters Fort Walton Beach, Florida calculator plant, citing economic conditions [10-Jan]
Jan MOS Technology, Inc. renamed to CDS Technology, Inc.
Feb Rockwell announces intention to shut down calculator subsidiary Unicom Systems, Inc [1-Feb]
Feb New York Life Insurance Co. files $16-million suit against Bowmar Instrument Corp. as a result of default on a loan [7-Feb]
Feb Bowmar Instrument Corp. files for Federal Chapter XI bankruptcy [10-Feb]
Mar Plan for aquisition of Signetics by Philips announced
Apr Bill Gates & Paul Allen found Micro Soft [4-Apr]
Hugle International declared bankrupt
Remains of Computer Design Corp. absorbed into Monroe International division of Litton Industries
May Tektronix announces the Model E-31 Calculator (reduced cost version of the Model 31)
Jun Acquisition of Signetics by Philips via US Philips Trust Corp. completed
Jun Bowmar Instrument Corp. terminates production of calculators
Jun Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. launches the Epson brand name
Jun Canon introduces its SX-310 advanced programmable desktop calculator
Hewlett Packard 9830 calculator selects passwords for the very popular ABC TV Game Show Password
Jul CDS Technology, Inc (formerly MOS Technology Inc.) dissolved [9-Jul]
Singer Business Machines division shut down
Western Digital becomes the largest independent producer (by sales volume) of calculator ICs in the world
Facit AB subsidiary of Electrolux closes its US calculator production unit, Lago Calc, Inc. in Canoga Park, CA
Tektronix shuts down calculator business unit
Dec Texas Instruments' Cal-Tech calculator accepted for exhibit by the Smithsonian Institution
1975 sales of calculator chipsets produced in Japan & Europe: $115.6M
1975 sales of electronic calculators in the US: $268M
1975 sales of electronic calculators in Japan & Europe: Basic pocket calculators: $117.6M; Office calculators: $100.1M; Scientific calculators: $42M
US production value of calculator ICs in 1975: Basic Single-Chip: $21.6M; Scientific Single-Chip: $16.1M
>>>   Special Function Single Chip: $2.4M; Chipsets: $2.4M

1976
Jan Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 4900 Advanced Programmable Calculator
Jan Rockwell International begins phase-out of Sumlock Anita division in UK
Texas Instruments announces the SR-60 advanced programmable desktop calculator
Feb Hewlett Packard announces HP 9825A calculator
Feb Rockwell International's Microelectronics Device Division reports that it produced over two-million LSI semiconductor devices during February, 1976
Mar Federico Faggin(formerly Intel), Ralph Ungermann(Intel), and Masatoshi Shima(formerly Nippon Calculating Machine Co./Intel)
>>>   create first working prototype of Zilog Z-80 microprocessor
Friden closes down electronic calculator plant opened in fall of 1970 in Albuquerque, NM
Facit AB begins phase-out of direct sales force for office products
Facit AB closes office product production factory in Gothenburg, Sweden
Monroe Division of Litton Industries ends business relationship with Computer Design Corp.(Compucorp)
Oct Computer Design Corp. announces bankruptcy filing [22-Oct]
Oct Western Digital Corp. announces voluntary filing for Chapter XI bankruptcy production during attempted reorganization
>>>   after it is unable to meet financial obligations to United California Bank and Emerson Electric Co.
Dec Texas Instruments introduces the PC-100 Thermal Printer Dock for the SR-52 Mag-Card Programmable Pocket Calculator at Consumer Electronics Show
Dec Singer closes down Friden Division, marking the official end of Friden (R.I.P.)

1977
Mar Agreement reached between Victor Comptometer Corp. and Walter Kidde Co. for Kidde to acquire Victor
Apr Ricoh introduces the acronym "OA" for Office Automation at Hanover Fairground CEBIT(defunct as of 2018) show in Germany
Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-01 Wrist Instrument [First wrist-worn calculator/timekeeper/calendar/stopwatch]
Jun Rockwell International exits calculator business
Facit(Electrolux) exits calculator business
Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) sold to Pertec Computer Corp.
Oct Texas Instruments introduces the SR-60A update of the SR-60 programmable calculator
Victor United spins off business machines division as Victor Business Products

1978
Commodore abandons its electronic calculator business in favor of personal computers
Dr. Ge Yao Chu, Senior VP and Board Member, Retires from Wang Laboratories
Jun Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (NEC) announces intent to acquire California-based chipmaker Electronic Arrays, Inc. for approx. $8.6M [16-Jun]
Oct Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International, passes away [16-Oct]
Dec Sale of Electronic Arrays to NEC completed

1979
Mostek purchased by United Technologies Corp.
Mar Volkswagenwerk AG (Volkswagen) announces intent to acquire majority ownership of Royal Typewriter/Triumph-Adler in 55% stock purchase
R.ohm (Toyo Electronics Industry) changes name to ROHM
Fairchild Camera & Instrument purchased by French company, Schlumberger Limited, for $425M
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the HP-85 desktop computer
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. formally changes name to Toshiba

1980
Sales of Casio electronic calculators exceeds 100-million unit mark
Compucorp rejects $1/share bid by Savin Corp. to acquire the company
Jun Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (later, Sharp Corp.) passes away [24-Jun]
Monroe International changes name to Monroe Systems for Business
Oct Compucorp introduces "Correct'n'Spell" Wordprocessing System, $13,000
Dec Rapid Data Systems & Equipment dissolved [16-Dec]

1981
Financier Bernard Katz acquires majority ownership of Compucorp
May Dr. Stanley P. Frankel, Manhattan Project physicist, and later designer of the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR and the prototype of the Diehl Combitron, passes away [2-May]

1982
Jul Harold Koplow leaves Wang Laboratories over disagreements with President Fred Wang
Soundesign Corp. returns to being a privately-held company
Victor United & Victor Business Products rejoined, now called "Victor Technologies"
Dr. An Wang retires from active management of Wang Laboratories

1983
Harold Koplow joins computer manufacturer Modular Computer Systems, Inc. (MODCOMP) as VP of Research & Development
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. officially renamed "NEC Corporation"
TI files complaint with US Intl. Trade Commission concerning importation of inexpensive off-shore calculators as violation of US Tariff and Patent Law
Sep Compucorp announces plan to purchase 80% stake in Monroe division of Litton Business Systems

1984
Jan Jack Tramiel leaves Commodore, citing "personal reasons" for his departure
Jan Compucorp announces abandonment of plans to purchase majority ownership of Monroe Systems for Business Division of Litton Industries
Frank S. Wyle retires from role as CEO of Wyle Laboratories
Jul US Intl. Trade Commission initiates investigation of TI claim of import tariff/patent violation by off-shore (Japan) calculator manufacturers
Aug Hewlett Packard begins shipping the HP-25 handheld programmable calcualtor
Aug Compucorp announces promotion of Norman Grannis to Executive VP and COO
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. changes name to Toshiba Corp.
Litton Industries sells Monroe Systems for Business division to Jeffry Picower, major beneficiary of the Bernie Madoff investment scandal
Dec Elmer R. Easton steps down as President and CEO of Compucorp
Dec William M. Duke succeeds Elmer Easton as President and CEO of Compucorp

1985
Jan Bernard B. Katz invests $1M in Compucorp, assumes board Vice Chairman of the Board title
Olympia Werke AG is renamed Olympia Aktiengesellschaft
Mar Elmer R. Easton resigns as Chairman of the Board of Compucorp to pursue other business interests
Dr. An Wang (CEO/President of Wang Laboratories) holds secret discussions with ITT regarding possible merger
Jun US Intl. Trade Commission rules no violation of tariff or patent law relating to Texas Instruments' complaint filed in late 1983
Jun Bernard B. Katz resigns from board of directors of Compucorp citing potential conflict of interest
Jul John F. Cunningham resigns as President of Wang Laboratories [19-Jul]
Harold Koplow(after leaving MODCOMP) and Dave Moros, both formerly of Wang Laboratories recruited to Computer Consoles, Inc.
Sep Bernard B. Katz elected Chairman of the Board of Compucorp (only months after having resigned as a director)
Sep Norman Grannis promoted to President and CEO of Compucorp, replacing William Duke
Oct United Technologies announces intent to close down Mostek Corp. subsidiary [17-Oct]

1986
Mar Passing of Heinz Nixdorf due to heart attack suffered at the CeBit Trade Show [17-Mar]
Apr Olivetti S.p.A purchases Volkswagen's controlling interest in Royal Typewriter/Triumph-Adler
Fairchild Semiconductor purchased by National Semiconductor from Schlumberger
Jun Transitron Electronics Corp. announces it is going out of business [29-Jun]
Elmer R. Easton, former President of Computer Design Corp., founds Three D Graphics Inc.
Sep Burroughs Corp. and Sperry Corp. merge to form Unisys Corp.
Nov Dr. An Wang steps down of President of Wang Laboratories
Nov Dr. An Wang's son, Frederick, named President of Wang Laboratories [19-Nov]
Bell Punch Co., Ltd. ceases business

1987
SGS Thomson purchases chipmaker Mostek
Schlumberger sells Fairchild to National Semiconductor for $200M

1988
Feb Richard Feynman passes away [15-Feb]
Tadao Kashio steps down as President of Casio
Oct Curt Herzstark, inventor of Curta calculator, passes away [27-Oct]

1989
Apr Kōnosuke Matsushita, founder of Matsushita/Panasonic, passes away at age 94 [27-Apr]
Aug Frederick Wang, son of founder of Wang Laboratories, Dr. An Wang, resigns as President of Wang Labs [8-Aug]
Aug Dr. William B. Shockley, co-inventor of transistor, passes away at age 79 [12-Aug]

1990
K. Hattori & Co. formally renamed Seiko Corporation
Mar Dr. An Wang, founder of Wang Laboratories, passes away due to complications from esophageal cancer [24-Mar]
Jun Robert Noyce, semiconductor technology luminary, passes away at age 62
Oct Siemens AG acquires majority equity in Nixdorf Computer AG, to form Siemens Nixdorf Informationsystems AG [1-Oct]

1991
Jan Founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics, Kazuma Tateisi, Passes Away at 90 Years of Age [12-Jan]
National Cash Register Corp. (NCR) acquired by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)
Mar Dr. Julius J. Muray, Vice President of Cintra, passes away [28-Mar]

1992
Aug Wang Laboratories files for Chapter XI bankruptcy protection, 5,000 jobs to be eliminated [18-Aug]

1993
Mar Tadao Kashio, co-founder of Casio, passes away at age 75 [4-Mar]
Sep Wang Laboratories emerges from August, 1992 Chapter XI Bankruptcy reorganization [20-Sep]

1994
Mar Commodore's stock falls to $0.75/share, NYSE halts trading of the company's shares
Apr Commodore Business Machines announces closure and liquidation of the company [29-Apr]
Soundesign Corp. changes company name to SDI Technologies
Apr Commodore Semiconductor Group survives closure of parent company through purchase by its management

1995
Jan George Robert Stibitz, famed Bell Labs Computer Researcher & Designer, passes away [31-Jan]
Apr Remains of Commodore Business Machines sold to ESCOM, a German computer manufacturer
Jul Smith Corona Corp. files for Chapter XI bankruptcy protection [5-Jul]
Nov Passing of Bernard (Barney) Oliver, founding director of HP Laboratories, and project leader for HP's first calculators, the HP 9100s and HP-35 calculator, among other notable achievements. [23-Nov]
Dec Konrad Zuse, electronic computing pioneer, passes away [18-Dec]

1996
Mar David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away [26-Mar]
Federico Faggin donates the original prototype for the Busicom 141-PF calculator, the first to use a single-chip microprocessor, to the Computer History Museum in Mt. View, California

1997
The Old Calculator Museum first appears on the World Wide Web as a Geocities site
Fairchild Semiconductor, an independent venture, founded in Portland, Maine
Mar National Semiconductor sells its Standard Products Group (created from parts of the "old" Fairchild Camara & Instrument) to newly-formed Fairchild Semiconductor for $550M
May Logicon, Inc. acquired by Northrup Grumman for $750M [5-May]
Aug William S. Burroughs passes away [2-Aug]
Dec Masaru Ibuka, co-founder of Sony, passes away at age 89 [19-Dec]

1998
Wang Laboratories acquires Olivetti's Computer Services Division, Olsy, SpA, for $391M, Wang Labs now "Wang Global"
Mar
Facit AB, after numerous breakups and ownership changes, ceases to exist
Sep Public disclosure (after 30 years) of formerly top secret MP944 CADC microprocessor chipset used in F-14 Tomcat Jet Fighter via article in the Wall Steet Journal [22-Sep]
Monroe Systems for Business sells off copier, fax, and shredder businesses to Savin, to focus business purely on calculators

1999
Wang Global (formerly Wang Laboratories) acquired by Dutch company Getronics
Tsugio Makimoto, GM of Hitachi's Semiconductor Division, leaves Hitachi to join Sony Corp.
Oct Akio Morita, co-founder of Sony, passes away at age 78 [3-Oct]

2000
Mar William Burkhart, prolific calculating machine designer at Monroe Calculating Machine Co., passes away
Atsushi Asada, key calculator engineer in the early days of Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) electronic calculators, joins board of directors of Nintendo
Sep David Moros, Wang 700 hardware architect and co-inventor of Wang Labs' first Word Processor, passes away from cancer at age 64 [27-Sep]
Dec Litton Industries and Northrop Grumman announce buyout of Litton for ~$5.1 billion dollars

2001
Jan Bill Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away [12-Jan]
Apr Northrop Grumman announces completion of purchase of Litton Industries [3-Apr]
Monroe Systems for Business becomes privately-owned, with HQ in Bristol, PA
Sep John P. Stedman, once VP and Director of Operations at Mathatronics, passes away at age 83 [26-Sep]

2002
Jan Pier Giorgio Perotto, project leader and architect of the amazing Olivetti Programma 101, passes away at age of 71 [22-Jan]

2003
May Matsushita announces it will globally unify its consumer products under the Panasonic brand name
Oct William B. Hugle, founder of Hugle International and Siliconix among others, passes away at age 76 [14-Oct]
Dec Howard Z. Bogert, calculator designer and LSI IC designer, passes away at age 68 [28-Dec]

2004
Nov Harold Koplow, developer of microcode for the Wang 700-Series calculators, and later, development of Wang's breakthrough word processing and small office computing systems, passes away at age 64 [4-Nov]

2005
Jun Eiichi Goto, developer of the Parametron , passes away [12-Jun]
Atsushi Asada(Sharp) retires, leaves position as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Nintendo
Jun Jack Kilby, inventor of the first Integrated Circuit, and leader in the design of the "Cal-Tech" calculator at Texas Instruments, passes away at age 81 [20-Jun]
Jul Dr. Irwin Wunderman, founder of Cintra, visionary behind development of the Cintra 909 and 911 calculators, and noted theoretical mathemetician and physicist, passes away at age 74 [July 27]
Jul Hiro Moriyasu, involved in the formation of the Tektronix calculator division with the acquisition of Cintra, passes away at age 70. [July 31]
Dec Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 1-billion unit mark
Dec Sharp Corporation presented with prestigious "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing"

2006
May Benjamin Friedman, founder of Solitron Devices, Inc. passes away at age 84 [10-May]

2007
Jul Árpád Klatsmányi, a pioneer in development of transistorized digital electronics in Hungary, passes away at 83 years of age [1-Jul]
Wyle Laboratories, Inc. changes its name to Wyle, Inc.
Nov Tektronix, Inc. acquired by Daniher Corporation
Dec AMI Semiconductor acquired by On Semiconductor for approximately $915M in stock

2008
Jan Karl Diehl, son of Diehl Group founders, passes away at age of 100. [19-Jan]
Nov Panasonic and Sanyo annnounce agreement in principle for Panasonic to acquire majority stake in Sanyo [2-Nov]

2009
Apr Hewlett Packard awarded the "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing" award for the company's development of the HP-35 calculator, the first handheld scientific electronic calculator
Jun Don Farina, MOS IC pioneer at Fairchild, General Micro-electronics and others, passes away at age 78 [11-Jun]
Aug Massimo Rinaldi, calculator designer and founder of IME, passes away [16-Aug]
Nov Matsushita and Sanyo begin talks relating to Matsushita acquiring Sanyo [3-Nov]
Dec Panasonic acquires majority (50.2%) stake in Sanyo with $4.5 billion investment [21-Dec]

2010
Mar Passing of Jack J. Bialik, project leader at Stanford Research Institute for development of CRT display system for Friden calculator [1-Mar]
Apr Dr. H. Edward Roberts, founder of MITS, passes away at age 68 [1-Apr]
Jul Panasonic announces that it will acquire all remaining shares of Sanyo, making it a wholly-owned subsidiary of Panasonic
Sep Frank Wanlass, CMOS IC Inventor, passes away at 77 years of age
Nov UK Computer Pioneer Sir Maurice Wilkes, inventor of microprogramming concept, passes away at age 97 [29-Nov]

2011
Apr Sanyo Electric Co. becomes wholly-owned subsidiary of Panasonic [1-Apr]
Jul Saul Ashkenazi, founder of Realtone Electronics (later, Soundesign; now SDI Technologies) passes away at age 90
Aug Dr. Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu, co-founder with Dr. An Wang of Wang Laboratories, passes away at age 93 [4-Aug]

2012
Mar Passing of Mark Pivovonski, age 88, co-inventor of the Monroe EPIC 2000/ EPIC 3000 calculators, as well as one of the engineers involved in development of early Monrobot-series computers [11-Mar]

2014
Oct Howard Rathbun, co-inventor of the Monroe EPIC 2000/ EPIC 3000 calculators, passes away at age 82 [23-Oct]

2016
Jan James (Phil) Ferguson, integrated circut technology luminary, passes away at age 85 [16-Jan]
Mar Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. principals file Striking Off (Dissolution) Application for the Company [11-Mar]
The Casio AL-1 Relay Calculator listed in Japan's National Museum of Nature & Science registry as important achievement in Japanese technological history
Aug Broughton & Co. (Bristol) Ltd. ceases operations, ending legacy of Busicom brand name [16-Aug]
Aug Frank S. Wyle, founder of Wyle Laboratories, passes away at age 97 [29-Aug]
Jul Wyle, Inc. (formerly Wyle Laboratories, Inc.) purchased by KBR, Inc. for $570M, forming KBRwyle [5-Jul]
Oct Paul G. Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, Passes Away at Age 65 [15-Oct]

2017
Jan Robert H. Norman, Fairchild Gang-of-Eight Member, GM-e co-founder, Nortec Electronics founder, MOS IC Design Pioneer, Passes away at age 89 [21-Jan]
Apr Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore, passes away at age 83 [8-Apr]
Jun Kevan Heydon, fellow calculator collector and preservationist living in the UK, passes away due to sudden cardiac arrest at age 50. Rest in Peace, Kevan. [22-Jun]

2018
Jan Tadashi Sasaki, undisputed leader in Japanese electronic calculator technology development and key player in development of the Intel 4004 microcontroller, passes away at age 102 [31-Jan]
Sep Untimely passing of Emil Dudek, fellow old calculator preservationist, at age 57 [30-Sep]
Dec Passing of Michael J. Cochran, extraordinary calculator engineer at HP, Cintra, Tektronix and Texas Instruments [2-Dec]

2019
Feb Jerry Merryman, one of Texas Instruments' key engineers involved in development of TI's revolutionary skunkworks bipolar LSI Cal-Tech calculator passes away at age 86. [27-Feb]
Mar The Old Calculator Museum's exhibit of Wang Laboratories' line of electronic calculators presented at the 2nd annual Vintage Computer Festival-Pacific Northwest held at the Living Computer Museum+Labs in Seattle, WA wins the "Most Interesting Presentation" award. [24-Mar]
Dec Charles (Chuck) Peddle, Primary Designer of the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, passes away at age 82 [15-Dec]

2020
Feb Katherine Johnson, noted NASA computer(mathematician), passes away at age 101. [24-Feb]
Mar Paul Allen's Living Computer Museum+Labs in Seattle, WA, closed due to COVID-19 pandemic. Still closed as of July, 2022. [5-Mar]
Nov The Texas Instruments Cal-Tech prototype electronic calculator from the estate of Jerry Merryman[6/17/1932-2/27/2019], one of its designers, sold at auction for $68,825

2021
Apr Lee Boysel passes away at age 82 [25-Apr] [Fairchild MOS LSI Disruptive Force, Developed First Single Chip Microprocessor Core, the AL1]
Sep Sir Clive Sinclair, founder of Sinclair Radionics and producer of novel calculators and low-cost microcomputers, passes away at age 81 [16-Sep]


Document Copyright ©1997-2022, Rick Bensene.