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Calculator History Timeline

By Rick Bensene

Last Updated 3/11/2017

This page of the Old Calculator Web Museum is a timeline of known historical points, milestones, and other time-related material relating to calculator technology.


1838
Birth of Frank S. Baldwin, prolific and revolutionary calculating machine designer

1845
Birth of Willgodt Theoophil Odhner, inventor of the "pinwheel" calculating machine

1851
Isaac Merritt Singer forms I.M. Singer & Company, manufacturing sewing machines

1855
Sep Birth of William S. Burroughs, founder of American Arithmometer (Burroughs Corp.)

1865
I.M. Singer & Co. changes name to Singer Manufacturing Co.

1875
Hisashige Tanaka opens Shibaura Engineering Works Co. (precursor to Toshiba)

1878
Bell Punch Co., Ltd. incorporated

1884
National Cash Register Co. founded by John H. Patterson

1886
Jan American Arithmometer Co. (precusor to Burroughs) founded in St. Louis, Missouri
Carl Walther Company founded, producing firearms

1887
Dorr E. Felt and Robert Tarrant form partnership doing business as "Felt & Tarrant"

1890
Ichisuke Fujioka & Shoichi Miyoshi form Hakunetsusha & Co., Ltd. (later Tokyo Electic Company)

1891
May Gerard Philips founds Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, Holland, making light bulbs (precursor to Philips Electronics, N.V.) [15-May]
Apr Carl Friden born in Alvesta, Sweden

1893
Nov Birth of Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of Hayakawa Kinzoku Kougyou (Sharp Corporation) [3-Nov]

1896
Herman Hollerith founds Tabulating Machine Co. (precursor to IBM)

1898
Aug Nippon Electric Co. Ltd. established by Kunihiko Iwadare and Takeshiro Maeda
Sep William S. Burroughs passes away

1899
Jul Nippon Electric Company, Ltd. Incorporated [17-Jul]

1900
Sep Birth of Kazuma Tateisi, Founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics [20-Sep]

1902
Jan Curt Herzstark, inventor of the Curta Calculator, Born in Vienna, Austria [26-Jan]
Sep Heinrich & Margarete Diehl begin business as a metal artwork foundary (Beginnings of Diehl Corp.)
Dec Birth of Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd. [28-Dec]

1903
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH founded in Berlin. (Beginnings of Olympia International)

1904
American Arithmometer Co. moves from St. Louis to Detroit

1905
Willgodt T. Odhner passes away
Mercedes Euklid established in Germany
American Arithmometer Co. renamed to "Burroughs Adding Machine Co."

1907
Birth of Karl Diehl, son of Diehl Corp. founders

1908
Universal Adding Machine Co. acquired by Burroughs
Kanekichi Yasui founds Yasui Sewing Machine Co. established (precursor to Brother)
Oct Camillo Olivetti founds Ing. G. Olivetti & Co., S.p.A., in Ivrea, Italy, manufacturing typewriters

1909
Burroughs buys Pike Adding Machine Co.

1910
Nippon Phonograph Co., Ltd. founded by Frederick Whitney Horne (later, Nippon Columbia/Denon)
Feb Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd (a.k.a. Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.) founded
Jun Konrad Zuse born in Berlin, Germany
Sperry Gyroscope Co. founded
Brothers Rodney and Alfred Marchant begin manufacturing calculating machines in Oakland, California
Namihei Odaira founds Hitachi, Ltd, maker of electric motors

1911
Tabulating Machine Co. changes name to Computing, Tabulating and Recording Co. (CTR), later becomes IBM.

1912
Muldivo founded in London by Henri Ebstein as a distributor of office machines
N.V. Philips Gloeilampfabrieken Incorporated (Philips)
Apr Jay R. Monroe and Frank Baldwin establish the Monroe Calculator Co. [25-Apr]
Sep David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, born in Pueblo, Colorado [7-Sep]
Sep Tokuji Hayakawa founds the beginnings of Sharp Corp. [15-Sep]

1913
Marchant brothers incorporate calculator business as Marchant Calculating Machine Co.

1915
Tadashi Sasaki born in Taiwan

1916
National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers founded in Chicago

1917
Nov Tadao Kashio born, Nangoku City, Japan - Future founder of Casio [26-Nov]

1918
AB Addo founded in Malmo, Sweden by Hugo Agrell
Matsushita Electric Housewares Mfg. Works (Panasonic) founded by Konosuke Matsushita
Facit founded in Sweden
Mar Victor Adding Machine Co. founded in Chicago, IL, by Carl Buehler
May Birth of Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu (Wang Laboratories) [3-May]

1919
Birth of Barney Oliver, RADAR pioneer, and later, founding director of HP Labs, responsible for overseeing development of groundbreaking HP 9100-A and HP-35 calculators.
Jun Birth of Stanley Frankel, Manhattan Project Physicist, Computer & Calculator designer. See exhibit on the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR for more information. [6-Jun]
Willard Rockwell forms a company in Wisconsin making truck axle bearings forming the foundation of what becomes Rockwell International
The first Victor Adding Machine, the Model 110, is introduced

1920
Feb An Wang born in Shanghai, China - Future founder of Wang Laboratories

1921
Mitsubishi Electric Corp. formed as spinoff of Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co.
Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Co. purchased by Burroughs

1922
Laurence Marshall and Vannevar Bush found American Appliance Co. (becomes Raytheon)

1923
Hayakawa Electric's facilities destroyed by earthquake & fire, rebuilt in Osaka
Dictaphone Corp. formed out of Columbia Gramophone Co.
Nov Birth of Jack Kilby, inventor of the first experimental Integrated Circuit

1924
Birth of Yoshio Kojima - Future Founder of Nippon Calculating Machine Corp.
Carl Walther Company begins manufacture and sale of calculating machines
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. listed on New York Stock Exchange
Computing, Tabulating, and Recording Co. changes name to International Business Machines (IBM)

1925
Due to a name clash, American Appliance Co. changes name to Raytheon Co.
Yasui Sewing Machine Co. renamed Yasui Brother's Sewing Machine Co.
Apr Frank S. Baldwin, calculator designer at Monroe, passes away [8-Apr]
Apr Heinz Nixdorf born in Paderborn, Germany

1926
L.C. Smith & Bros. and Corona Typewriter merge to become Smith Corona

1927
Remington Typewriter Co. and Rand Kardex merge to form Remington Rand
Remington Rand purchases Powers Accounting Machine Co.
Dec Birth of Robert Noyce, inventor of the first practical Integrated Circuit, and co-founder of Integrated Electronics (Intel) [12-Dec]

1928
Nippon Calculating Machine Co. Ltd. founded in Osaka, Japan
Brand name "Brother" created by Yasui Sewing Machine Co.
Jul Birth of Robert A. Ragen, designer of the Friden EC-130 electronic calculator [23-Jul]
Sep Paul Galvin founds Galvin Manufacturing Corp., in Chicago, Illinois (Precursor to Motorola)

1929
Jan Birth of Gordon E. Moore, Co-Founder of Intel, and creator of "Moore's Law" [3-Jan]
Feb Massimo Rinaldi, Designer and patent holder of IME Calculators, Born [21-Feb]
Carl Friden leaves as head of design department of Marchant Calculating Machine Co.
National Association of Office Appliance Manufacturers renamed to Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Dec Idek Tramielski (Jack Tramiel) Born in Lodz, Poland (founder of Commodore) [13-Dec]

1930
May Geophysical Service founded. (Precursor to Texas Instruments)
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH moves from Berlin to Erfürt Germany.
Union Schreibmaschinen GmbH renamed to "Europa Schreibmaschinen AG", creates the brand name "Olympia" for their typewriters
Dorr Eugene Felt, co-founder of Felt & Tarrant, passes away
Nov Birth of James (Phil) Ferguson, co-founder of General Micro-electronics [18-Nov]
Dec Birth of Pier Giorgio Perotto, designer of the Olivetti Programma 101 programmable electronic calculator

1931
Jan Birth of Eiichi Goto, inventor of Parametron [22-Jan]
Mar Julius J. Muray, (VP of Cintra) Born in Hungary [22-Mar]
Apr Irwin Wunderman (founder of Cintra) born [24-Apr]

1932
Carl Buehler, fouder of Victor Adding Machine Co., passes away

1933
Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) established (precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Mar Birth of Atsushi Asada, visionary engineer behind development of Electronic Calculators at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Birth of William Kahn, designer of Mathatronics Mathatron calculator
May Friden Calculating Machine, Co. founded by Carl Friden with $52,000 in capital
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. Co. founded by Kazuma Tateisi, Osaka Japan (becomes OMRON Corp.)
Sperry Corp. formed

1934
Jan Friden Calculating Machine Co. founded in Oakland, CA on $100K investment from four investors.
Litton Industries founded by Charles Litton Sr.
Yasui Sewing Machine Co. formed into Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co. (Now Brother Industries, Ltd.)
Barry Wright Corp. founded (later purchased Mathatronics, Inc.)

1935
IBM announces the 601 Multiplying Punch (electro-mechanical punched-card calculator)
May Birth of Howard Zabriskie Bogert, calculator designer & LSI engineer [5-May]
Jun Fujitsu founded as manufacturing arm of Fuji Electric Ltd., building telephone-related equipment

1936
Feb Riken Kankoshi Co., Ltd. founded (precursor to Ricoh)
Jun General Precision Equipment Corp. founded
Europa Schreibmaschinen AG renamed Olympia Büromaschinen Werke AG (Olympia Office Machine Works)
Friden Calculating Machine, Co., moves to San Leandro, California

1937
Librascope Inc. founded by Mr. Lewie Imm
Aug Seiki Kogaku Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. incorporated (Precursor to Canon Camera Co.)
Oct Marcian (Ted) Hoff, designer of the first single-chip microprocessor, born in Rochester, New York

1938
Konrad Zuse completes the mostly mechanical V1 (later known as Z1), a prototype of a programmable calculating machine using binary elements
Mar Riken Kankoshi Co. Ltd. changes name to Riken Optical Co. Ltd.
Nov Heinrich Diehl (founder of Diehl Corp.) passes, son Karl assumes presidency of company [7-Nov]
Dec Incorporation of Geophysical Service (precursor of Texas Instruments)

1939
Jan Hewlett Packard founded in Palo Alto, California
Tokyo Electric Co. and Shibaura Engineering Works Co., Ltd. merge to form Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Later, Toshiba)
Clary Corp. founded by Hugh L. Clary
Geophysical Service Inc.(GSI) changes name to Coronado Corp., GSI continues as subsidiary.
Apr Construction of Bell Laboratories' relay-based "Complex Number Calculator" begins
Oct Bell Laboratories' relay-based "Complex Number Calculator" completed [First Relay-Based General Purpose Calculator]

1940
Sep Public Demonstration of Bell Labs' "Complex Number Calculator" [11-Sep] [First example of remote computing]
Nov Birth of Harold Koplow (Senior Calculator Engineer at Wang Labs)

1941
GSI Subsidiary of Coronado Corp. sold
Librascope Inc. purchased by General Precision Equipment Corp.
May Uchida Denshi Kogyo Co., Ltd. (Uchida Yoko) incoroporated
Small four-function relay calculator developed by Fuji Electric Works, Japan
Dec Konrad Zuse completes the V3 (later known as Z3) relay-based programmable calculator

1942
Michael James Cochran born in Daytona Beach, Florida
Sep Birth of Ed Roberts, founder of MITS [13-Sep]
Tokuji Hawakawa's Company changes business name to "Hayakawa Electric Industry Co., Ltd."

1943
Jan Harvard Mark I (also called ASCC, for Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator) completed
Curt Herzstark begins design of what becomes the Curta calculator while imprisoned in German concentration camp
Jul Bell Labs Completes Model II "Relay Interpolator"
Aug Masatoshi Shima (behind the pioneering development of microprocessor in Busicom calculator) born in Shizuoka, Japan [22-Aug]

1945
Mar Bell Labs Completes Model IV "Error Detector Mark 22" Relay Calculator
Apr Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. re-founded after World War II
Apr Carl Friden, founder of Friden Calculating Machine Co., passes away [29-Apr]
Walter S. Johnson assumes role as President of Friden Calculating Machine Co.
Jun Bell Labs Completes Model III Relay-Based "Ballistic Computer"

1946
Jan Tektronix, Inc. founded by Jack Murdock and Howard Vollum
Apr Tadao Kashio founds "Kashio Seisansho" (Kashio Manufacturing, later "Casio Computer Co., Ltd.")
May Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Ltd. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corp.) established (later, Sony) by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita.
Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. Incorporated
Tadashi Sasaki visits transistor technology researchers at Bell Labs
Nov Calculating race between desktop electromechanical calculator and abacus - Abacus Won!

1947
Galvin Manufacturing Corp. changes name to "Motorola, Inc."
Curta Calculator (Type I) begins production
Sanyo Electric Works founded, Osaka Japan
Aug Hewlett Packard Co. incorporated
Sep Seiki Kogako Kenkyusho (Precision Optical Industry) Co., Ltd. changes name to "Canon Camera Co. Inc."
Dec The point contact transistor is invented at Bell Laboratories

1948
Jun Bell Laboratories formally announces the development of the transistor
May Tateisi Electric Mfg. changes name to Tateisi Electronics Co.
Futaba Denshi founded in Mobara, Japan, manufacturing radio vacuum tubes
Raytheon introduces the first commercial point-contact transistor, the CK703

1949
First Japanese Business Machine Exposition held in Tokyo, Japan
Wyle Laboratories founded, El Segundo, CA
Introduction of the Friden STW-10 electromechanical calculator at the fall New York Business Show
Bell Labs' Relay-Based Complex Number Calculator dismanteled

1950
Jan Oi Electric Co. Ltd., founded
Coronado Corp. changes name to General Instruments Inc.
Nippon Electric begins transistor R&D effort
Apr Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., incorporated [1-Apr]
Canon Camera Co., Inc. opens branch office in New York City
Diehl Corp. begins development of mechanical calculating machines

1951
Jan Due to a name clash, General Instruments Inc. changes name to Texas Instruments Inc.
The junction transistor is invented by William Shockley
Jun Dr. An Wang founds Wang Laboratories
Concept of microprogramming conceived by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University
Jul Bell Labs announces the development of the junction transistor

1952
Takachiho Koheki Co. Ltd. founded
Bell Labs begins selling licensing rights to transistor technology for $25,000.
First demonstration of magnetic core memory
Friden SRW electromechanical calculator introduced [First Electromechanical Calculator with Automatic Square Root]
Founding of transistor manufacturer Transitron Electronic Corp.
Jul Heinz Nixdorf founds Labor für Impulstechnik, in Essen, Germany (later, Nixdorf Computer Inc.)
Aug Physical Research Laboratories acquired by Marchant Calculators, Inc., renamed Marchant Research Inc. [7-Aug]
Diehl Corp. begins production of semi-automatic mechanical calculators

1953
National Cash Register Co., acquires Computer Research Corp., forming NCR Electronics Division
Burroughs Adding Machine Co. renamed to "Burroughs Corp."
Nov University of Manchester's experimental transistor computer operational [First Transistor-based General Purpose Computer]
Raytheon announces the first mass-produced commercial junction transistor, the Germanium PNP CK722.

1954
Jan Bell Labs' transistorized TRADIC computer goes operational
Büromaschinen Werke AG renamed to Olympia Werke AG
Mar Parametron invented in Japan by Eiji Goto (Parametron Used in Oi Electric's Aleph Zero Calculator)
Brother International Corp. established in US by Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co.
Burroughs purchases Haydu Brothers, manufacturers of vacuum tubes (and inventors Nixie display tubes).
May Texas Instruments introduces the first mass-produced commercial Silicon Transistor
May Transistors manufactured by Sony begin selling in Japan
Oct Fuji Telecommunications Mfg. (later Fujitsu) introduces FACOM 100 programmable relay calculator (~4,500 relays)
Production of the Curta Type II begins
Dec Toshio and Tadao Kashio (Kashio Seisakujo - later Casio) completes prototype solenoid-operated electric calculator
Dec The Regency TR-1, the first transistor radio, is introduced

1955
Feb Monroe introduces the Monrobot III Tube-Based/Magnetic Drum Programmable Electronic Desk-Sized Calculator
Autonetics established as an independent division of North American Rockwell specializing in military equipment
Canon opens US Branch office in New York City, establishing Canon USA
Texas Instruments introduces the first Silicon junction transistors, the 900-Series
Typewriter marketing firm, Commodore International Ltd., founded by Jack Tramiel in Toronto, Canada
May Dr. An Wang granted U.S. Patent 2,708,722 for principles of magnetic core memory
Remington Rand merges with Sperry Gyroscope Corp., forming Sperry Rand
Jun Wang Laboratories incorporated
Nov Introduction of Stanley Frankel-designed Librascope LGP-30 small computer

1956
Development project behind the Bell Punch electronic calculator begins
Mar Dr. An Wang assigns rights to core memory principles patent to IBM
Facit starts up subsidiary called Facit Electronics to build and sell electronic computers
Friden acquires Commercial Controls Corp. (Originator of Flexowriter/Justowriter)
Casio shows prototype relay-based general purpose calculator
Goverment action requires Bell Labs to make transistor design information freely available

1957
Jan Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Founded
Sherman Fairchild, founder of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, funds startup of Fairchild Semiconductor
Felt and Tarrant Mfg. Co. becomes "Comptometer Corp."
RCA introduces the 2N404 PNP alloy-junction Germanium transistor - heavily used in early electronic calculator designs.
Clary Corp. introduces a plugboard-programmable electronic calculator built into a desk, the DE-60
Digital Equipment Corporation founded in Maynard, Massachusetts
The Nixie numeric display tube goes into volume production at Burroughs
Jun Casio Computer Co., Ltd. incorporated [1-Jun]
Jun Casio 14-A Relay Calculator debuts for sale [Casio's First Electrical Calculator]
Jun Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd. contracted as exclusive distributor of Casio relay calculators
IBM introduces the 610 "Auto-Point" calculator (floating point, programmable w/magnetic drum, vacuum-tube logic)
Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd. contracted as exclusive distributor of Casio relay calculators

1958
Jan Bell Punch begins design of electronic calculator
Jan Marchant closes down Marchant Research subsidiary
Jan Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corp. renamed to "Sony Corp."
Matsushita Communication Industrial Co., Ltd. established as spin off from Matsusushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. introduces the NEAC-1101 and NEAC-1102 computers based on Parametron technology
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. acquired by Litton Industries
Marchant acquires Johnson Adding Machine Co.
Apr Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. agree in principle to merge [7-Apr]
Jun Merger of Smith-Corona, Inc. and Marchant Calculators, Inc. completed, forming SCM Corp
Sep First Integrated Circuits: Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments/Robert Noyce, Fairchild

1959
Hitachi establishes business presence in the US, Hitachi America, Ltd.
Friden SBT-10 clectromechanical calculator introduced
May Casio 14-B Relay calculator introduced (Automatic Square Root)
May National Semiconductor founded in Danbury, Connecticut
Nov Design team formed at Packard Bell to develop what becomes the PB-250 computer

1960
Feb NEC prototypes first Japanese-made Mesa-Type Germaniun Transistor [19-Feb]
Feb NEC prototypes first Japanese-made Mesa-Type Silicon Transistor [23-Feb]
Feb First customer shipment of Clary DE 60 "Desk-sized" programmable electronic calculator
Development of electronic calculator begins at Hayakawa Electric(Sharp) under direction of Atsushi Asada
Mar Texas Instruments announces the SN502 "Solid Circuit" Silicon Monolithic IC Flip Flop ($450 Retail Price Per Flip Flop!) [TI's First Commercially Sold Digital IC]
Nippon Electric begins R&D effort in Integrated Circuit technology
Comptometer Corp. sells right use trademark "Comptometer" to Control Systems Ltd., the owner of Bell Punch Co. Ltd., and Sumlock, Ltd.
Mar Casio 301 Scientific relay calculator introduced
Apr TI announces first commercial integrated circuit, the type 502 "Solid Circuit" flip flop
Apr Engineers from Hayakawa Electric visit Prof. Hiroshi Ozaki at Osaka University to study transistor digital logic design principles for calculator application
Aug Prototype Packard Bell PB-250 computer operational
Oct First production Packard Bell PB-250 computer delivered to customer

1961
William Kahn begins design specification for Mathatron calculator
Feb Casio announces the "TUC Compuwriter", a calculating machine that interfaced a relay calculator to a Toshiba-made I/O typewriter.
Mar Clary introduces DAC-2500 electronic calculating unit as OEM product (derived from DE-60)
Mar Fairchild announces its MicroLogic family of bipolar logic integrated circuits
Apr Logicon Inc. founded by eight engineers in Southern California
Mitsubishi Electric produces Japan's first integrated circuit
Signetics (contraction of Signal Network Electronics) Corp. founded by ex-Fairchild engineers
TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) Invented at TRW by James Buie
Sumlock Comptometer Ltd. founded, primary distributor for Bell Punch calculators
Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co. (Brother) begins manufacturing office products
Tadashi Sasaki earns his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Kyoto University
BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) formed from reorganization of Office Equipment Manufacturers Institute
Oct Sumlock Comptometer introduces the Anita C/VII (Mark 7) and the C/VIII (Mark 8) at the Hamburg Business Equipment Fair
Oct Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) announced at London Exposition [First Mass-Marketed Electronic Desktop Calculator]
Oct Victor Adding Machine Co. and Comptometer Corp. merge to form Victor Comptometer Corp.
Oct First public exhibition of the Anita C/VIII (Mk 8) at the Business Efficiency Exhibition in London
Friden Calculating Machine Co. contacts Stanford Research Institute to develop a CRT-based display system for a calculator
Dec Philco Corporation purchased by Ford Motor Company, becomes Philco-Ford
Dec Diehl Corp. (West Germany) and SCM forge agreement for SCM to have exclusive rights to market Diehl calculators in North America [9-Dec]

1962
Jan Sumlock Comptometer begins accepting orders for the Anita Mk7 and Anita Mk8 calculators. Mass manufacturing of the machines begins.
Feb Mathatronics Inc., founded by William Kahn, Roy Reach, and David Shapiro. Design of Mathatron calculator begins
Remex Corp. opens doors in Palm Beach, FL, as a business machine distributor
Facit shuts down Facit Electronics subsidiary due to extreme competition in the computer marketplace
Philips demonstrates two prototype transistorized electronic adding machines and a 3-function (+,-,X) 10-key calculator
Stanford Research Institute delivers prototype CRT Display design and hardware to Friden
Industria Macchine Elettroniche (IME) founded in Rome, Italy, as partnership between Dr. Massimo Rinaldi and Edison S.p.A.
May Addmaster Corp. incorporated to manufacture low-cost adding machines utilizing DuPont DELRIN(TM) plastic components
Commodore International, Ltd. goes public, changes name to Commodore Business Machines
Nippon Sewing Machine Mfg. Co. changes name to Brother Industries, Ltd.
Saburo Uemura, researcher at Sony, demonstrates hand-built prototype electronic calculator, the Sony MD-3
Olivetti begins design of Programma 101 electronic calculator
Nov Smith-Corona Marchant changes company name to SCM Corp.
Nov Soviet Union demonstrates operational prototype of an all-electronic calculator, precursor to VEGA
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan) begins project for development of an electronic calculator
Friden SRQ electromechanical calculator introduced
Dec Working prototype of Mathatron calculator formally shown to investors of Mathatronics Inc.

1963
Mar First order for two Mathatronics Mathatron calculators placed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
Apr Riken Optical Co. Ltd. changes name to "Ricoh Co., Ltd."
Jun Friden exhibits prototype Friden 130 electronic calculator
Jun General Micro-electronics, a spinoff of Fairchild, founded [31-Jun]
Jun Founders of General Micro-electronics reach agreement in principle for Pyle National to provide startup funding of approx $4-5M
Sanyo introduces the "Cadnica" line of Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable batteries
Singer Manufacturing Co. changes named to Singer Corp.
Jun SCM Corp. announces plan to move manufacturing calculators from Oakland, CA, to Orangeburg, SC
Jul Announcement of intent for Singer Corp. to acquire Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Jul]
Jul Mathatronics Inc., successfully completes first customer shipment of Mathatron Model 8-48 calculator to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute for shipboard research use
Jul Canon Camera Co. Inc. completes prototype 10-key electronic calculator
Aug Formal agreement approval announced for Singer Corp.'s acquisition of Friden Calculating Machine Co. [16-Aug]
Diehl Corp. introduces the "Transmatic", a four-function electromechanical automatic printing calculator
Aug Oi Electric exhibits trial production prototype of Aleph Zero calculator
Fairchild introduces the first RTL (Resistor-Transistor Logic) Flip Flop IC, the 907
Oct Closure of Sale of Friden Calculating Machine Co. to Singer Corp. [14-Oct]
Oct Philip R. Samwell succeeds Walter S. Johnson as President of Friden Division of Singer Corp.
Oct Pyle National announces majority funding of General Micro-electronics [23-Oct]
Oct General Micro-electronics announces production of its first MOS IC family, dubbed Picologic
Thomas Osborne leaves SCM Corp.
Nov Mathatronics Mathatron formally introduced @ NEREM show, Boston [Many Firsts: First All-Transistor w/Magnetic Core Memory, "Learn Mode" Stored Program, Floating Decimal, Scientific Notation, Algebraic Logic, Automatic Square Root]
Dec MOS IC guru Frank Wanlass leaves Fairchild to join General Micro-electronics for MOS LSI development

1964
Jan Thomas Osborne begins work on developing his own calculator design
Feb K&M Electronics founded, developing electronic inventory systems
The Dual In-Line Package (DIP) for ICs invented at Fairchild R&D
Dr. Tadashi Sasaki leaves Fujitsu for senior management position at Hayakawa Electric (Sharp)
Casio builds prototype transistorized desktop calculator
Wang Labs begins development of LOCI-1 Calculator
Mar Italy's IME (Industria Macchine Elettroniche) shows the IME 84 electronic calculator [IME's First Electronic Calculator]
Mar Sony shows prototype MD-5 electronic calculator at World Electronics Show, New York City [Sony's First Publically Shown Desktop Electronic Calculator]
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) shows prototype Compet 10 (Model CS-10A) transistorized electronic calculator
Mar Oi Electric Co., Ltd. shows prototype version of Aleph Zero 101 electronic calculator [Parametron (ferro-electronic) logic]
Apr Wyle Laboratories demonstrates prototype Wyle WS-01 Scientific electronic calculator at Spring Joint Computer Conference, Washington D.C. [21 to 23-Apr]
Apr Friden announces the EC-130 to its sales force at annual "Fiesta de los Conquistadores" sales convention in Boca Raton, FL. [29-Apr]
May The BASIC computer language runs for the first time on Dartmouth University's General Electric 225 Computer System [1-May]
May Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) formally introduces the Compet CS-10A Electronic Calculator [14-May]
May Sony announces intent to enter the electronic calculator marketplace [14-May]
May Friden formally introduces the EC-130 electronic calculator in event held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, with retail price of $2,150 [20-May]
May George E. Comstock (future founder of Diablo Systems) hired at Friden as R&D Director
May Canon shows Canola 130 Prototype [Canon's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Friden begins national advertising campaign for the EC-130 electronic calculator [6-Jun]
Jun Fairchild introduces the 930-Series DTL IC Logic family of four IC's
Jun Casio 401 Relay calculator introduced
Jun Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) begins sale of Compet 10 (CS-10A) in Japan [Sharp's First Electronic Calculator]
Citizen Business Machine Inc. established as subsidiary of Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.
Soviet "VEGA" electronic calculator begins production [Soviet Union's First Electronic Calculator]
Aug General Micro-electronics (GM-e) publically announces their first "large-scale" MOS IC, the PL200 20-Bit shift register
Aug The Friden EC-130 electronic calculator wins Industrial Design award at WESCON convention in Los Angeles [25 to 28-Aug]
Aug Hayakawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Sharp) forms Industrial Instrument Division to focus on electronic calculator business
Sumlock Comptometer Anita C/IX (Mark 9) debuts
Sep Wang Laboratories introduces the LOCI-1 calculator.
Sep Dr. An Wang granted Patent 3,402,285 for principles of Wang LOCI calculator
Oct In-depth article on Sharp's Compet 10 calculator written up in Japan's Semiconductor Technique Magazine
Oct Victor and General Micro-electronics(GM-e) sign contract for GM-e to develop and produce the Victor 3900 calculator
Oct Los Angeles BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Association) show held, October 19-23
Oct Canon formally introduces the Canon 130
Oct Texas Instruments begins sale of SN5400/7400-Series TTL Integrated Circuits in flat-pack packages
Dec British electronic component manufacturer Mullard shows prototype electronic calculator utilizing thyratrons and transistors
Dec Monroe EPIC 2000 calculator introduced [1-Dec]
Dec Frank Wanlass leaves General Micro-electronics after only one year
Dec Thomas Osborne's "Green Machine" calculator prototype becomes fully operational [24-Dec]
Wyle Laboratories WS-02 "Scientific" debuts

1965
Jan Wang LOCI-2 debuts [Wang's First Programmable Calculator]
General Micro-electronics (GM-e) completes prototype design for Victor 3900 using its Milliwatt Logic (bipolar) devices
Olivetti's Electronics Division (which made electronic calculators) sold to General Electric
Apr Wanderer Werke introduces the Wanderer Conti printing desktop electronic calculator [Hanover Fair]
Apr Friden 132 introduced to Friden sales force at annual sales convention [8-Apr]
Apr General Micro-electronics delivers first 25 production Victor 3900 calculators to Victor
Olympia Werke AG introduces the RAE 4/15 [Olympia's First Electronic Calculator]
May Nippon Calculating Machine Co. introduces Unicon 160 electronic calculator (Japan Only) [NCM/Busicom's First Electronic Calculator]
May Casio 402 Financial relay-based calculator debuts
Prototype of Data Acquisition Corp. DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator running.
Jun First customer deliveres of Monroe EPIC 2000 calculators begin
Jun Smith Corona Marchant announces the SCM Cogito 240 Electronic Calculator
Jun Malcolm McMillan demos prototype electronic calculator that performs trigonometric functions to Hewlett Packard
Jun Thomas Osborne demos his "Green Machine" floating point calculator prototype to HP executives
Jun Casio ends exclusive distribution agreement with Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.
Royal McBee acquired by Litton Industries
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (Toshiba) establishes U.S. business presence
Sep Texas Instruments' "Cal-Tech" skunkworks project begins
Sep Sharp introduces the Compet 20 (CS-20A) [Sharp's First Use of Silicon Transistors]
Sep Casio 001 introduced [Casio's First All-Electronic Calculator]
Oct BEMA show, New York, October 25-29
Oct Dero Research & Development introduces the Sage 1 calculator at BEMA show [First and Only Electronic Calculator by Dero Research]
Oct Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 3900 using General Micro-electronics' MOS Chipset [First MOS LSI IC-Based Electronic Calculator]
Oct Olivetti Programma 101 announced [Olivetti's First Electronic Calculator]
Oct Wang Laboratories' first public demonstation of new 300-Series Calculator
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 21 (CS-21A), adds square root to the Compet 20
Facit cements two year exclusive OEM agreement to resell Sharp electronic calculators under Facit badge.
Nov Canon introduces the Canon 161
Dec Toshiba BC-1001 introduced [Toshiba's First Electronic Calculator]
Combined output of Japanese electronic calculator manufacturers for 1965 is 4,355 machines

1966
Jan Casio Root 001 introduced [Casio's First Electronic Calculator with Square Root]
Jan Alan W. Drew appointed President/CEO of Friden Div. of Singer Corp., succeeding Philip R. Samwell
Mar Sale of General Micro-electronics to Philco-Ford completed
Mar Hitachi completes prototype desktop electronic calculator
Mar Wang Laboratories begins production of 300-Series Calculators
Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. split from Bell Punch to design and build electronic calculators
Data Acquisition Corp. introduces the DAC-512 programmable desktop calculator.
IME introduces the IME 86 calculator
Sharp introduces the Compet 30 (CS-30A) Calculator
SCM (Smith-Corona-Marchant) begins sale of the Cogito 240SR Electronic Calculator [SCM's First All-Electronic(Transistorized) Calculator]
Olims Electronics in Australia and Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) form agreement allowing Olims Electronics to build and sell Sharp-designed calculators in the Australian market
May Diehl introduces the Combitron electronic programmable printing desktop calculator [Diehl's first electronic calculator]
May Casio 164 electronic calculator introduced
Jul Casio 101 introduced in Japan [First Electronic Calculator Exported by Casio]
Jul Friden introduces the 1217 printing electomechanical calculator to limited regional markets
Jul American Microsystems Inc. (AMI) founded in Santa Clara, California
Jul Nippon Calculating Machine Co., Ltd. introduces the transistorized Busicom 161 electronic calculator [NCM's First All-Electronic Calculator]
Jul Mathatronics, Inc., purchased by Barry Wright Corp., becomes Mathatronics division
Canon U.S.A., Inc. incorporated
Facit acquires AB Addo, a competing Swedish mechanical calculating machine company
Sumlock Comptometer introduces the Anita C/XII (Mark 12) [Sumlock's First All-Transistor Calculator]
Sep ISE Electronics Corp. (Iseden) Founded, maker of Vacuum Fluorescent Display(VFD) devices
Sep Casio exports Casio 101 electronic calculators to Australia [First Casio Electronic Calculators Sold Outside Japan]
Sep Casio introduces the Casio 101E
Oct Show of Japanese Business Machines, Toronto, Canada
Oct Nortec Electronics Corp. incorporated [13-Oct]
Oct Sanyo exhibits prototype DK-141 transistorized electronic calculator
Oct Brother International introduces its first electronic calculator, the Calther 130
Oct 50th Anniversary BEMA Exposition, McCormick Place, Chicago [18-20 Oct]
Texas Instruments Begins Sale of SN5400/7400-Series TTL ICs
Nov Wang announces availability of the 320SE 4-user Simultaneous "Time Shared" calculator
Nov Sharp introduces the Compet 15
Nov Toshiba Introduces the BC-1411
Facit begins marketing electronic calculators through OEM agreement with Sharp
Dec Texas Instruments completes "Cal-Tech" prototype [First IC-Based "Handheld" Battery-Powered Calculator]
Combined output of Japanese electronic desktop calculator manufacturers for 1966 is 25,532 machines

1967
Jan Hitachi introduces KK-12 (ELCA-12) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1112 [Hitachi's First Production Electronic Calculator]
Feb Sharp introduces the Compet 31 [Sharp's First use of Small-Scale Bipolar IC's]
Mar Canon introduces the Canola 151 (reduced capacity version of the Canon 161
The Floppy Disk (8-inch) invented at IBM by Alan Shugart
ISE Electronics Corp. licenses its Vacuum Fluorescent display tube technology to NEC
Mar Annual IEEE Convention, New York, NY.
Mar Wang informally introduces the Wang Model 4000 computer system at IEEE Convention
Mar Commodore enters OEM agreement with Casio for sales of Casio calculators under the Commodore brand in US & Canada
Mar Texas Instruments shows "Cal-Tech" prototype [Prototype LSI IC-Based "Handheld" Calculator]
Sharp introduces the CS-30B, a redesigned version of the Compet 30 (CS-30A).
Apr Masatoshi Shima Joins Computer Division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co. as Computer Programmer
North American Aviation and Rockwell-Standard Merge to form North American Rockwell
Data Acquisition Corp. purchased by Picker Nuclear.
Chip maker Intersil founded
Toshiba introduces BCT-1211 8-Terminal Timeshared Calculator [First Commercial Timeshared Multi-Terminal Calculating System]
Chip maker Electronic Arrays founded
Jun Toshiba introduces the BC-1201 electronic calculator
Jun First ever Consumer Electronics Show, New York, NY
Jun Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC 10B [Uchida Yoko's First Electronic Calculator]
Jun Sony introduces SOBAX ICC-500 hybrid circuit electronic calculator. [Sony's First Production Electronic Calculator]
Jun Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-400, an electronic calculator built with hybrid circuits
Jul Omron Tateisi Electronics Co., completes delveopment of prototype electronic calculator, OMRAC 777
Jul Wang Laboratories begins publishing "The Wang Laboratories Programmer"
David Shapiro leaves Mathatronics
North American Rockwell sets up facility for producing MOS integrated circuits for military use (under Autonetics Division)
Jul Wang Labs announces the Model 370 programmer for the 300-Series calculator
Aug Sharp introduces the Compet 32 (CS-32A) [Sharp's first use of Magnetic Core Memory and Multiplexed Display]
Aug SCM introduces the Cogito 566 PR, a rebadged Diehl Combitron [24-Aug]
Aug Wang Labs first publically demonstrates the 370 Programmer at WESCON Los Angeles
Aug Wang Laboratories goes public on New York Stock Exchange
Sep Casio forms OEM relationship with Sperry Remington
Sep Canon introduces the magnetic drum-based Canon 167
Oct Show of Japanese Business Machines at Japanese Trade Center, Chicago, IL (Oct. 9th-13th)
Oct 9th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) Show, New York, NY (Oct. 23rd-27th)
Oct Friden introduces the 1217 electromechanical printing calculator to the national market
Oct 7th Annual Japan Business Machine Show, Tokyo, Japan (Oct. 25th-28th)
Oct Masatoshi Shima transfers to Calculator Division of Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Oct Casio AL-1000 transistorized calculator debuts [Casio's First Programmable Electronic]
Nov NEREM show, Boston War Memorial Auditorium [Nov 1-3]
Nov Cintra founded by Irwin Wunderman in his garage, manufacturing digital energy measurement instruments
Nov Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. registers trade name "Denon"
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. introduces the Busicom 141 and 162(NCR 18-2) calculators
Nov Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. introduces the Busicom 202 CRT-display calculator [Designed by Wyle Laboratories under contract to NCM]
Nov Monroe/Litton Holds Sales Convention, Diplomat Hotel, Hollywood, Florida [26-Nov to 1-Dec]
Dec Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) introduces Compet 16 (CS-16A) [First use of MOS Integrated Circuits in Production Calculator]
Hewlett Packard Corp. pays Olivetti $900K in settlement for violations of Olivetti Programma 101 patents

1968
Jan Sanyo announces entry into the electronic calculator marketplace with three machines to debut in early spring
Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) arranges $40M Yen (~$110K US Dollars) funding to Nippon Calculaing Machine Co. (Busicom)
Feb Friden internally announces the 1150 printing calculator at MSRP of $1,495 [8-Feb]
Mar Hewlett Packard 9100A formally announced [HP's First Calculator, Groundbreaking Capabilities] [11-Mar]
Mar Hewlett Packard 9100A first shown to limited audience at IEEE Conference in New York [March 18-21]
Mar Dr. An Wang, CEO of Wang Laboratories, given sneak preview of HP 9100A At IEEE Conference by Hewlett Packard founder, Bill Hewlett
Mar Singer and General Precision agree in pricipal to merger [26-Mar]
Mar Friden internally announces the 1151 programmable printing desktop calculator at MSRP of $1,795
Mar Wang introduces Model 380 programmer keyboard/display unit for 300-Series calculator
Mar Wang 362E introduced
Apr ElectroTechnical Industries (ETI) Founded (Electronic Calculator Manufacturing & Development), associated wtih Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NCM/Busicom) Tokyo, Japan
Apr Canon Canola 161S and Canola 163 calculators announced in Japan [1-Apr]
Apr Burroughs signs agreement with Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) for Sharp to design & manufacture calculators for Burroughs
Apr Harold Koplow starts employment with Wang Laboatories
Apr Agreement forged for Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) to purchase Wanderer Werke AG for $17.2M DM.
Apr Sanyo introduces ICC-141 & ICC-161 calculators using MOS shift register IC made by Philco-Ford (formerly General Micro-electronics)
Apr Sanyo introduces ICC-121 calculator
Apr Wang Laboratories announces the 379-5 Output Writer, a modified IBM Selectric typewriter used for programmed output from the 370 Programming Keyboard.
May General Precision Equipment Company and Singer Company announce merger [10-May]
May Casio introduces the Model 152 calculator
May Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) travels to US seeking IC fabricator to manufacture LSI ICs for small Sharp Calculator
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of gas-discharge display devices
Facit builds a large new calculator factory in Sweden
Wang Labs rattled by rumor that Digital Equipment was working on developing a "Desk Calculator". The "calculator" actually turned out to be the PDP-11 computer.
Sharp introduces the Compet 22 (Model CS-22A)
Dr. An Wang granted US Patent on logarithm-generating circuits
Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) and Rockwell/Autonetics (later, Rockwell Semiconductor) form LSI calculator chip development alliance
MITS (Micro Instrumentation & Telemetry Systems) founded by Ed Roberts and associates
Computer Design Corp. founded, spin-off from Wyle Laboratories
Jul Singer Corp. acquires General Precision Equipment Corp.
Jul Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore incorporate "N M Electronics", the beginnings of Intel
Jul Sony introduces the SOBAX ICC-600 calculator
Jul Canon introduces the Canola 161S and Canola 163 Calculators in USA
Jul Wang Laboratories closes purchase of Philip Hankins, Inc. (PHI). Dave Moros from PHI instrumental in development of future Wang Calculator architectures.
Jul Singer completes merger with Librascope, Inc.
Jul Hitachi introduces the KK-22 (ELCA-22) calculator. Sold by Friden as the Friden EC-1113.
Jul NCR signs agreement with Nippon Calculating Machine Co. for sale of Busicom-made calculators under NCR brand name
Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. creates to Business Computer Corp., a.k.a. Busicom USA, for US market expansion
Aug Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D calculator debuts in Japan utilizing Rockwell/Autonetics-manufactured LSI chipset [First LSI (Large Scale Integration) Calculator]
Aug Busicom introduces the Model 162C electronic calculator
Victor Comptometer acquires exclusive distribution rights from Nixdorf Computer for sale of Wanderer Conti calculators as Victor 1500-series.
Sep Denon announces the DEC-61A4 electronic calculator [Denon's First Electronic Calculator]
Sep Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (later Epson) introduces EP-101 digital printer
Sep Hewlett Packard 9100A formally announced for sale in HP's corporate technology publication, the HP Journal
Sep Wang Laboratories stock begins trading on the American Stock Exchange
Oct Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) formally closes purchase of Wanderer Werke AG [1-Oct]
Oct Wang Laboratories introduces 360SE electronics package [Last Wang 300-Series Calculator]
Oct Computer Design Corp. [CDC] and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. [NCM] forge agreement for CDC to develop advanced calculators for NCM
Labor für Impulstechnik (LFI) renamed Nixdorf Computer AG
Tadashi Sasaki (Sharp) meets with Robert Noyce and Bob Graham (Intel) and Yoshio Kojima (NCM/Busicom)
Nov Tateisi Electronics Co. establishes trade name of OMRON Tateisi Electronics Co.
Dec Uchida Yoko, Co., Ltd. introduces the USAC-22B electronic calculator

1969
Mostek opens for business in Worcester, Massachusetts
Jan Singer Co. board of directors changes status of Friden, Inc. from fully-owned subsidiary, to the Friden Division of Singer Co. [Jan 1]
Jan Wang introduces 200-Series "business" calculators based on 300-Series machines
Jan Wang announces CP-2 Card Programmer for 200/300-Series calculators
Feb The Singer Co. formally adopts a new logo for Friden, with a larger SINGER with "FRIDEN DIVISION" in smaller letters beneath.
Feb Friden announces market availability of the Hitachi-made Friden 1113
Feb Wang 700 calculator announced, not actually available until early 1970
Feb Busicom (ElectroTechnical Industries) introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed Busicom 207 and 2017 programmable electronic calculators
Mar North American Rockwell (Autonetics) receives $30M from Sharp for LSI Calculator IC Development
Mar Wang Laboratories, Inc., acquires Medical Systems and Data Corp. of Boston, MA
Amidst increasing competition, IME begins phasing out production of its electronic calculators, closes factory
North American Philips Corp. formed as merger of Consolidated Electric Co., and North American Philips Co., Inc.
ISE Electronics licenses Vacuum Fluorescent Display technology to Futaba Denshi
Mar Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces prototype calculator that becomes the Omron 1210
Mar Hayakawa Electric (Sharp) QT-8D introduced in US at New York IEEE trade show
Apr General Digital Founded by Alvin Phillips (later Western Digital) [23-Apr]
Apr Provisional agreement between Intel and Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (NC) signed for Intel to develop calculator chipset for NCM
Apr SCM Cogito 414 electronic calculator introduced [23-Apr]
May Friden announces the Friden 1160 Electronic Calculator to its salesforce [20-May]
May Wang introduces model 301 Column Printer for Wang 200/300-Series calculators
May Uchida Yoko exits desktop electronic calculator marketplace after only 2 years
May Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. shows revolutionary EP-101 printer at 38th Business Show in Tokyo
May Casio introduces the Casio 121-A/AS-A calculator.
May Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Founded in Sunnyvale, CA
Jun Barry Wright Corp. announces negotiations to sell Mathatronics division to a small investment group
Jun SCM Introduces the 1016PR Programmable Calculator, $2495 [18-Jun]
Jun Team (M. Shima, H. Masuda, S. Takayama) from Nippon Calculating Machine Co. visit Intel concerning development of nine chip printing calculator chipset
Jun Annual Consumer Electronics Show, New York Hilton Hotel [Jun 28-Jul 1]
Jul Toshio Iue, founder of Sanyo, passes away [16-Jul]
Jul Dictaphone Corp. announces entry into the electronic calculator business, marketing two Sanyo-made calculators under their brand. [29-Jul]
Aug Introduction of the Monroe 820 CRT-display electronic calculator [Monroe's First IC-Based Calculator]
Aug WESCON show, San Francisco
Aug Hitachi introduces the KK-24 (ELKA-24) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1114.
Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 100,000 unit mark
Victor Comptometer sells its electronics division to Nixdorf Computer
Aug Shinshu Seiki Co., Ltd. (Seiko) shows EP-101 drum printer at WESCON show in San Francisco
Canon Camera Co., Inc. changes name to "Canon, Inc."
Sep Masatoshi Shima returns to Intel concerning calculator IC development
Sep Intel introduces its first static 256-bit MOS Random Access Memory IC, the 1101
Sep Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces the Omron 1210 [Omron's First Electronic Calculator]
William Kahn, Roy Reach leave Mathatronics
Oct Sony announces it will demonstrate its new ICC-2500 Programmable Calculator at BEMA show [22-Oct]
Oct 11th Annual BEMA (Business Equipment Manufacturers Assoc.) show, New York, October 26-30
Oct Prototype Wang 700 Advanced Programming Calculator shown at BEMA show
Oct Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi form strategic business alliance
Oct Brother Procal 514 introduced
Oct Hewlett Packard 9100B introduced
Oct Barry Wright Corp. announces deal to sell Mathatronics div. falls through
Oct Intel presents "microprocessor" concept to Busicom as alternative for calculator chipset design, Busicom accepts it
Fairchild introduces the first static RAM IC, the 4100, holding 256 bits
Nov Hitachi introduces the KK-32 (ELKA-32) in Japan. OEM'd by Friden to become the Friden 1115.
Nov Friden introduces the Friden EC-1114 electronic calculator [5-Nov]
Nov Cintra 909 Scientist announced
Commodore moves corporate headquarters to Santa Clara, CA, from Toronto, Canada
MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) incorporated
Dec Barry Wright Corp. closes Mathatronics division [30-Dec]
Dec Masatoshi Shima submits initial functional spec for what becomes the 4004, returns to Japan from Intel visit

1970
Jan Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. introduces the Omron 1200 electronic calculator [21-Jan]
Jan Denon introduces the DEC-411 electronic calculator
Jan Ricoh Co, Ltd. founds Ricoh of America, a wholly-owned US subsidiary, located in New Jersey.
Feb Wang begins regular production of Wang 700-Series calculators
Futaba Denshi begins manufacture of Vacuum Fluorescent Display Devices
Hayakawa Electric Industry Co. changes name to "Sharp Corp."
Oi Electric Co., Ltd. exits calculator market
Feb Friden introduces the Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator [4-Feb]
Feb Formal agreement between Busicom and Intel for development of microprocessor for calculator application [6-Feb]
Feb Wang Laboratories announces the Wang 3300 Timeshared Computer System
Mar Busicom submits final design specs to Intel for microprocessor chip
Mar Wang formally introduces the Wang 720A/B Calculators
Mar Sharp QT-8D begins sales in US
Apr LED (and later, calculator) manufacturer Litronix founded by George E. Smith and six associates
Apr Friden begins customer deliveries of the Friden EC-1115 electronic calculator
Apr Canon announces the Canon Pocketronic, begins sales in Japan
Apr Federico Faggin hired away from Fairchild by Intel to work on microprocessor design for Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. (Busicom)
Apr Bill Hewlett and Barney Oliver give a HP 9100A calculator to noted author Arthur C. Clarke
Apr M. Shima of Busicom returns to Intel to find progress on microprocessor lagging. Joins development team and drives forward progress.
May Busicom introduces the Wyle Laboratories-designed 207P and 2017P versions of the 207/2017 which adds interface for an external printer
May Casio establishes US sales company, Casio, Inc.
May Mostek's VP of Marketing visits Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. concerning development of calculator on a chip
AMI moves IC manufacturing facilities to Pocatello, Idaho
Jun Denon introduces the DEC-521 electronic calculator
Jun Wang introduces 100-Series calculators
Aug Friden introduces the Friden EC-1116 electronic calculator [5-Aug]
Aug Logic simulation of 4004 microprocessor completed, only one logic error found
Aug WESCON Trade Show, Los Angeles, California (Aug. 25-28)
Monroe signs OEM agreement with Computer Design Corp. to market Compucorp-built calculators
Intel produces the first 1K-bit dynamic RAM IC, the 1103
Oct Canon Pocketronic begins sales in US [First LSI Handheld, Rechargeable Battery Powered, Printing Calculator. TI Cal-Tech was the Prototype
Nov Busicom's Masatoshi Shima returns to Japan after working with Intel to design 4004 microprocessor
Nov Electronic Arrays announces 6-chip calculator (EAS100) chipset for $158.46 [First Generally Available Calculator Chipset]
Nov Hewlett Packard begins design of HP-35 Handheld Scientific calculator
Nov Mostek successfully tests first one-chip calculator IC developed for Busicom
Nov Canon L-121 introduced [Canon's First MOS LSI-based Calculator]
Nov Casio 121-B/AS-B calculator introduced
Dec U.S. Patent 3,546,676 granted to Robert Ragen of Friden, for design of Friden EC-130
Dec Wang Laboratories common stock begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange
Industrial Research Magazine names the Cintra 909 as one of its "IR 100" most innovative products of 1970

1971
Jan Hewlett Packard introduces instrumentation system for 9100A and 9100B calculators
Jan Mostek begins volume production of "Calculator on a Chip", the MK6010, for Busicom [First Single-Chip Calculator IC]
Jan Sharp EL-8 introduced
Jan Busicom completes breadboard prototype of printing calculator based on logic design of Intel's proposed microprocessor
Jan Busicom introduces first "pocket" calculator using Mostek single-chip calculator IC (Busicom "Handy" LE-120A)
Intel begins pilot production of 4004 microprocessor and peripheral chips for Busicom
Jan Wang announces 500-Series calculators
Prototype of Intel 4004-based printing calculator (without chips) completed by Busicom
Feb Philco-Ford announces shutdown of microelectronics division
Feb First operating Intel 4004 microprocessor
Feb Canon Pocketronic begins sales in US
Feb Sharp EL-8 begins sales in US
Mar Michael Cochran Leaves Cintra to join Texas Instruments
Mar Nippon Columbia (Denon) and Hitachi dissolve business partnership
Mar Wang Labs delivers first 3300 Time Shared Computer System (Weymouth South High School, Weymouth, MA)
Remains of Mathatronics liquidated
Victor 1800-Series calculators introduced
Muldivo goes out of business
Compucorp Division of Computer Design Corp. formed
Hewlett Packard 9810A introduced
Apr Busicom receives first chips from Intel for prototype printing calculator
Apr First operating prototype of Busicom printing calculator using 4004 microprocessor [Busicom 141PF]
Apr Omron 800 [New Low Price Benchmark for AC-Powered Desktop]
SCM introduces the "Marchant I" (also known as the F-80) battery-operated portable Nixie Tube display calculator utilizing 4-chip LSI chipset.
May Busicom begins sale of LE-120A calculator using Mostek's Single-Chip calculator IC [First Handheld, Single-Chip Calculator, LED-Display Calculator]
May Intel and Busicom Corp. renegotiate 4004 Microprocessor contract
May Casio introduces the AS-C
May Tektronix announces purchase of Cintra, Inc. from Physics International [7-May]
Jun Sharp begins sale of the EL-8M, follow-on to the EL-8 which adds memory function.
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 700C and 720C calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces the 708 Memory Expansion Controller for 700-Series calculators
Jun Wang Laboratories announces 709 Dual Cassette Drive peripheral for the 700-Series calculators
General Digital changes name to Western Digital
Jul Purchase of Cintra, Inc. by Tektronix is completed.
Jul Micheal Cochran validates proper function of first TMS-100 microcontroller-based calculator chip [4-Jul]
Jul Tektronix announces the rebadged Cintra 909 and 911 calculators as the Tek 909 and Tek 911.
Aug Tektronix announces price reduction and upgraded memory in Tek 909 and 911 calculators.
Aug AMI announces agreement to acquire majority interest in desktop calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc. of Cupertino, CA
Sep Texas Instruments announces the TMS1802, TI's First "Calculator on a Chip" [17-Sep]
Sep Masatoshi Shima leaves Busicom to work for Ricoh
Sep Intel successfully negotiates removal of exclusive sales agreement with Busicom on Intel 4004
Sep Omron inks $2M contract with Nortec Electronics Corp. for development of MOS/LSI chipset for low-cost "personal" calculators
Sep Casio AS-8A introduced
Sep AMI completes acquisition of calculator distributor Unicom Systems, Inc.
Sep Bowmar/Ali, Inc. ships their first pocket-sized calculator, the 901B, utilizing TI calculator-on-a-chip.
Oct Busicom introduces the Model 141PF printing desktop calculator [First calculator to utilize microprocessor (Intel 4004)]
Nov Masatoshi Shima Leaves Ricoh to go to work for Intel at request of Bob Noyce
Nov Popular Electronics publishes article introducing MITS' $179 calculator kit, the MITS 816
Nov Intel announces general sales of 4004 microprocessor [15-Nov]
Dec Wang Laboratories announces Wang 600-Series calculators
Total number of electronic calculators in Soviet Union (USSR): 45,000

1972
Jan General Electric closes down its integrated circuit business
Jan Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-35 handheld scientific calculator [World's First Handheld Scientific Electronic calculator]
Feb Rapid Data Systems & Equipment, Ltd. introduces the Rapidman 800 pocket calculator
Feb Wang Labs announces SWAP calculator user group (implementation in June '72)
Feb Wang Labs announces Model 711 I/O Writer
Feb Casio fx-1 introduced [Casio's first scientific electronic calculator]
Facit begins large scale layoffs as calculator business suffers major losses
Diehl Corp. ends production of electromechanical calculators
Rockwell introduces the PPS-4 microprocessor, designed for calculator application
Facit purchased by consumer products conglomerate Electrolux
May Casio AS-8D Introduced
Jun Wang Laboratories implements "SWAP" (Soceity for Wang Applications and Programs) User Group
Jun MITS Model 1440 calculator introduced in Radio-Electronics magazine
Hewlett Packard 9820A introduced
Hewlett Packard 9830A introduced [First desktop calculator to use BASIC]
Production of Curta Calculators ends
Aug Casio Mini introduced [New Low Price Benchmark for Four Function Handheld]
Aug Sharp EL-801 handheld calculator introduced [First use of CMOS calculator on a chip made by Toshiba]
Rockwell International acquires Sumlock Anita Electronics Ltd. and Sumlock Comptometer
Sep Rockwell International acquires Unicom Systems, Inc. from American Microsystems (AMI)
Sep Texas Instruments announces entry into the electronic calculator marketplace with the TI-2500, TI 3000, and TI 3500 calculators. [20-Sep]
Wang 400-Series calculators introduced
Dec MITS 7400 Scientific/Engineering Calculator introduced

1973
Feb Hewlett Packard HP-80 introduced [First Financial Handheld]
Feb Casio introduces the Casio "Mini", Model CM-601
Facit absorbed into large conglomerate Electrolux
Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (BEMA) becomes CBEMA, adding Computer Manufacturers to the mix.
North American Rockwell and Rockwell Manufacturing merge to form Rockwell International
May Hewlett Packard markets, through Japanese subsidiary Yokogawa Hewlett-Packard, a ROM block for the HP 9810 calulator that prints in Japanese Katakana character set.
May Sony announces its exit from electronic calculator market [31-May]
May Hewlett Packard HP-46 introduced
May Wang Laboratories begins shipping 2200 computer
May Hewlett Packard HP-45 introduced
Jul Sony terminates manufacture of electronic calculators [31-Jul]
Jul Tektronix Model 21 and 31 calculators introduced
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the 9821A calculator for $4,975 in base form

1974
Jan Hewlett Packard HP-65 introduced [First Programmable Handheld]
Feb Singer/Friden announces the 1202 and 1203 calculators.
Feb Nippon Calculating Machine Co. (Busicom) files for bankruptcy
Feb Tektronix Model 21 and 31 calculators launched in UK
Mar Tektronix announces the 31/53 Instrumentation System based on its Model 31 Calculator
Apr Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor
Jun U.S. Patent 3,819,921 granted to Texas Instruments' Jack Kilby & team for TI Cal-Tech calculator
Aug Tektronix announces Model 152 BCD Interface for Model 31 calculator
Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes ten million unit mark
Broughton & Co. purchases rights to the Busicom name from Nippon Calculating Machine Co.
Motorola introduces the 6800 microprocessor
Nippon Calculating Machine Corp. and Busicom Corp. cease business after bankruptcy
MOS Technology founded by ex-Motorola engineers
National Cash Register Co. changes name to "NCR Corp."

1975
Feb Bowmar Instrument Corp. files for Chapter XI bankruptcy [10-Feb]
Remains of Computer Design Corp. absorbed into Monroe International division of Litton Industries
May Tektronix announces the Model E-31 Calculator (reduced cost version of the Model 31).
Jun Bowmar terminates production of calculators
Jun Canon introduces the SX-310 programmable calculator
Chip maker Signetics acquired by Philips
Singer Business Machines division shut down
Tektronix shuts down calculator business unit
Rockwell International shuts down Sumlock Anita calculator plant
Dec Texas Instruments' Cal-Tech calculator accepted for exhibit by the Smithsonian Institution

1976
Jan Victor Comptometer introduces the Victor 4900 "Advanced Programmable Calculator"
Jan Rockwell International begins phaseout of Sumlock Anita division in UK
Feb Hewlett Packard announces HP 9825A calculator
Monroe Division of Litton Industries ceases business relationship with Computer Design Corp.
Texas Instruments announces the SR-60 calculator
Oct Computer Design Corp. announces bankruptcy [22-Oct]
Oct Commodore Business Machines acquires IC manufacturer MOS Technology
Dec Singer closes down Friden Division, marking the official end of Friden.

1977
Mar Agreement reached between Victor Comptometer Corp. and Walter Kidde Co. for Kidde to acquire Victor
Hewlett Packard introduces the revolutionary HP-01 "wrist instrument". [First wrist-worn calculator/watch/calendar/stopwatch]
Jun Rockwell International exits the calculator business
Facit(Electrolux) exits the calculator business
MITS sold to Pertec Computer Corporation
Oct Texas Instruments introduces the SR-60A programmable calculator
Victor United spins off business machines division as "Victor Business Products"

1978
Commodore quits producing calculators
Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International, passes away
Jun Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (NEC) announces intent to acquire California-based IC Manufacturer Electronic Arrays, Inc.
Dec Sale of Electronic Arrays to NEC completed.

1979
Mostek purchased by United Technologies Corp.
Fairchild purchased by French conglomerate Schlumberger
Willard Rockwell, founder of what became Rockwell International, passes away
Dec Hewlett Packard announces the HP-85 desktop computer
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. formally changes name to Toshiba

1980
Sales of Casio electronic calculators exceeds 100-million unit mark
Compucorp rejects $1/share bid by Savin Corp. to acquire Compucorp
Jun Tokuji Hayakawa, founder of Sharp Corp., passes away [24-Jun]
Monroe International changes name to Monroe Systems for Business
Oct Compucorp introduces "Correct'n'Spell" Wordprocessing System, $13,000

1981
Financier Bernard Katz acquires majority ownership of Compucorp
Mar Heinz Nixdorf, founder of Nixdorf Computer AG, passes away
May Dr. Stanley P. Frankel, Manhattan Project physicist, and later designer of the SCM/Marchant Cogito 240SR and the prototype of the Diehl Combitron, passes away [May 2]

1982
Jul Harold Koplow leaves Wang Laboratories
Victor United & Victor Business Products rejoined, now called "Victor Technologies"
Dr. An Wang retires from active management of Wang Laboratories

1983
Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. officially renamed "NEC Corporation"
Sep Compucorp announces plan to purchase 80% stake in Monroe Systems Divison of Litton Industries

1984
Jan Compucorp announces abandonment of plans to purchase majority ownership of Monroe Systems Division of Litton Industries
Jan Bernard B. Katz invests $1M in Compucorp, assumes board Vice Chairman of the Board title
Aug Compucorp announces promotion of Norman Grannis to Executive VP and COO
Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. changes name to Toshiba Corp.
Litton Industries sells Monroe division to Jeffry Picower
Dec Elmer R. Easton steps down as President and CEO of Compucorp
Dec William M. Duke succeeds Elmer Easton as President and CEO of Compucorp

1985
Olympia Werke AG is renamed Olympia Aktiengesellschaft
Mar Elmer R. Easton resigns as Chairman of the Board of Compucorp to pursue other business interests
Jun Bernard B. Katz resigns from board of directors of Compucorp citing potential conflict of interest
Aug Bernard B. Katz elected Chairman of the Board of Compucorp [30-Aug]
Oct Chipmaker Mostek, famous for first "Calculator on a Chip" IC, closed [17-Oct]

1986
Fairchild Semiconductor purchased by National Semiconductor from Schlumberger
Dr. An Wang relinquishes office of President of Wang Laboratories
Dr. An Wang's son, Frederick, named President of Wang Laboratories
Jun Transitron Electronics Corp. announces it is going out of business [29-Jun]
Elmer R. Easton founds Three D Graphics Inc.
Sep Burroughs Corp. and Sperry Corp. merge to form Unisys Corp.
Bell Punch Co., Ltd. disbanded

1987
SGS Thomson purchases Mostek

1988
Tadao Kashio steps down as President of Casio
Oct Curt Herzstark, inventor of Curta calculator, passes away

1989
Apr Konosuke Matsushita, founder of Panasonic, passes away at age 94 [27-Apr]
Aug Dr. An Wang fires his son Frederick from role of President of Wang Labs

1990
Siemens acquires majority equity in Nixdorf Computer Inc., to form Siemens Nixdorf Informationsystems AG
Mar Dr. An Wang, founder of Wang Laboratories, passes away due to cancer [24-Mar]
Jun Robert Noyce, semiconductor technology luminary, passes away at age 62

1991
Founder of Omron Tateisi Electronics, Kazuma Tateisi, Passes Away at 90 Years of Age
NCR Corp. acquired by AT&T
Mar Dr. Julius J. Muray, Vice President of Cintra, passes away [28-Mar]

1992
Aug Wang Laboratories files Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection [18-Aug]

1993
Mar Tadao Kashio, founder of Casio, passes away at age 75 [4-Mar]

1995
Jan George Robert Stibitz, father of relay computing, passes away [31-Jan]
Nov Passing of Bernard (Barney) Oliver, founding director of HP Laboratories, and project leader for HP 9100A, and HP-35 calculators, among other notable achievements. [23-Nov]
Dec Konrad Zuse, electronic computer pioneer, passes away

1996
Mar David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away [26-Mar]

1997
The Old Calculator Museum first appears on the World Wide Web
May Logicon, Inc. acquired by Northrup Grumman for $750M [5-May]

1999
Wang Laboratories acquired by Dutch company Getronics

2000
Mar William Burkhart, prolific designer at Monroe Calculating Machine Co., passes away
Sep David Moros, Wang 700 hardware architect and co-inventor of Wang's first Word Processor, passes away from cancer at age 64 [27-Sep]

2001
Jan Bill Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett Packard, passes away
Sep John P. Stedman, once VP and Director of Operations at Mathatronics, passes away at age 83 [26-Sep]

2002
Jan Pier Giorgio Perotto, designer of the Olivetti Programma 101, passes away [22-Jan]

2003
Dec Howard Z. Bogert, calculator designer and LSI engineer, passes away at age 68 [28-Dec]

2004
Nov Harold Koplow, developer of microcode for the Wang 700-Series calculators, and later, development of Wang's breakthrough word processing and small office computing systems, passes away.

2005
Jun Eiichi Goto, developer of the Parametron, passes away [12-Jun]
Jun Jack Kilby, inventor of the first Integrated Circuit, and leader in the design of the "Cal-Tech" calculator at Texas Instruments, passes away at age 81.
Jul Dr. Irwin Wunderman, founder of Cintra, designer of the Cintra 909 and 911 calculators, and noted theoretical mathemetician and physicist, passes away. [July 27]
Jul Hiro Moriyasu, involved in the formation of the Tektronix calculator division with the acquisition of Cintra, passes away at age 70. [July 31]
Dec Sales of Casio electronic calculators passes 1-billion unit mark
Dec Sharp Corporation presented with prestigious "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing"

2007
Nov Tektronix, Inc. acquired by Daniher Corporation

2008
Jan Karl Diehl passes away at age of 100. [19-Jan]

2009
Apr Hewlett Packard awarded the "IEEE Milestone in Engineering and Computing" award for the company's development of the HP-35 calculator, the first handheld scientific electronic calculator.
Aug Massimo Rinaldi, calculator designer and founder of IME, passes away [16-Aug]
Dec Panasonic acquires majority stake in Sanyo

2010
Apr Ed Roberts, founder of MITS, passes away at age 68 [1-Apr]

2011
Aug Dr. Ge Yao (G.Y.) Chu, Electrical Engineer, and partner with An Wang in founding of Wang Laboratories, passes away at age 93 [4-Aug]

2012
Apr Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore, passes away at age 83 [8-Apr]
Jun Charles B. Falconer, designer of the Data Acquisition Corp. DAC-512, passes away at age 80 [4-Jun]
Jul Robert A. Ragen, designer of the first solid-state electronic calculator, the Friden EC-130, passes away at age 83 [20-Jul]

2013
Dec Passing of Gary Boone, inventor of microcontroller, and co-inventor of Variable Function Programmed Calculator (TMS-1802, later TMS-0100 series) with Michael Cochran [12-Dec]

2016
Jan James (Phil) Ferguson, one of the founders of General Micro-electronics, passes away [15-Jan]
Mar Sharp Corp. sold to Taiwan-based Hon Hai Precision Industry, also known as Foxconn Technology Group [30-Mar]

2017
Jan Robert H. Norman, legendary electronics engineer and IC designer, as well one of the founders of General Micro-electronics, passes away at age of 89 [21-Jan]


Document Copyright ©1997-2017, Rick Bensene.