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Hewlett Packard 9820A Programmable Calculator

Updated 11/28/2000

The Hewlett Packard 9820A was HP's first venture into the realm of algebraic entry calculators. All of HP's previous machines, the history-making 9100A, the 9100B, and the 9810, all worked in Reverse Polish Notation (RPN), for which HP is famous, but was actually first used in Friden's EC-130. RPN involves the use of a 'stack', that helps make complex calculations more manageable without requiring as much use of 'memory' registers for temporary results. Reverse Polish Notation lends itself well to implementation in electronic form due to its efficiency. However, not everyone liked the mental adjustments required in order to 'think' in RPN. An example would be the calculation:

(6 + 8) / (3 + 9) * 14 + (6 - 2)

To perform such a calculation in RPN form, the key presses would be:

6 ENTER 8 + 3 ENTER 9 + / 14 * 6 ENTER 2 - +

To some, this method simply was too tedious to deal with. In a true algebraic entry calculator, the problem would be typed into the machine just as it is presented originally above, parentheses and all, making the mental gymnastics required to 'convert' an expression to RPN unnecessary. Among those that didn't like the RPN methodology were some HP marketing folks, who argued that RPN limited the penetration of HP's calculators into financial and business markets. As a result, the 9820 was produced, which used very similar hardware to the 9810 (HP's second generation RPN calculator), but changed firmware and the display subsystem. Though the 9820 presents an algebraic face to the user, it uses RPN logic internally, translating algebraic user input into internal RPN sequences, solving problems using the RPN stack methodology, then displaying the answer. In programming mode, the algebraic math statements are converted to RPN and stored internally in RPN form. When a stored program is listed out or edited, the RPN sequences are translated back into algebraic form and presented to the user in that way.

A ROM Pack for the HP 9820

The 9820 in base form is a simple five function calculator (add, subtract, multiply, divide, and square root). Along with the basic functions, the machine has 6 memory registers (called A, B, C, X, Y and Z), and access to 173 additional memory registers. The calculator has a 16-character 5x7 dot-matrix display, along with a built-in 16-column thermal dot-matrix printer, and magnetic card reader for offline program and data storage. Additionally, the machine is fully programmable, with test and branch instructions, an alpha-prompting 'input' function, alpha display and print functions, and subroutine capabilities. The key to the power of the 9820 is three 10-key sections of the keyboard that are uncommitted (except for use as alpha-character entry keys for program prompts and printer annotations). These sections of keys can be 'defined' by plug-in ROM modules that add functionality to the machine. While reading above where I said "simple five function calculator", you may have thought to yourself, "This seems odd for an HP calculator...normally they are loaded with math functions", and you are right to think this. HP's approach with the 9820 was to allow the buyer to 'option' the machine to their requirements. Option ROM modules include Mathematics functions (trig, logarithms, raising numbers to powers, etc.), User Definable Functions (allows user to define function keys to perform specific user-defined functions), Peripheral Control (allows connection of external devices such as plotters, printers, etc.), and others. These ROM packs plug into slots in the top of the case in areas corresponding to the key blocks on the keyboard. Special key overlays are provided with each ROM block to show the assigned function to the keys associated with the ROM pack.

HP 9820 Internal View

The 9820 uses very similar technology as the other machines in the 98x0 series. The 9810, 9820, and 9830 all share the exact same CPU, made up of four plug-in circuit boards crammed with medium scale integrated circuit logic. HP-designed LSI ROM chips store the 'program' that gives the machine its functionality, and Intel-made 1103 1K-bit static RAM (Random Access Memory) chips provide storage for program steps and memory registers. In base form, the RAM provides 173 storage registers (if no program steps have been entered). Additional RAM can be installed to bring total register storage to 429.

A Close-Up on the 16-Character LED Display of the HP 9820A

The 9820 uses a 5x7 dot-matrix display, designed and manufactured by Hewlett Packard. The display is made up of four modules with four characters each, for a total of 16 characters. The display scrolls horizontally when lines are longer than 16 characters. Editing keys allow the line in the display to be modified before submitted to the machine for processing.

The 9820 uses an internal binary floating-point numeric representation that provides ten digits of accuracy, with a range of -9.999999999x1099 to 9.999999999x1099. The calculator can be set up to display results in fixed decimal mode (with zero to nine digits behind the decimal point) or in scientific mode with a selectable number of digits behind the decimal point in the mantissa. As mentioned before, the calculator accepts problems in algebraic fashion, allowing entry of problems pretty much as they would be written down on paper. The keyboard has parenthesis keys that can be nested up to 12 levels deep. The machine uses precedence rules for evaluating expressions, and accepts 'implied' multiplication. The six 'single-key' memory locations (A, B, C, X, Y, or Z), along with the 'numbered' memory registers (0-172 in base form) can be assigned the results of a calculation by using the 'assignment' key, (->). For example to calculate the result of the content of register A, times the content of register 100, divided by 17, plus the sum of register X and Y, and put the result in register 101, the equation would be entered as:

R()100A/17+(X+Y)->R()101

As you can see, the "R()" key references a numbered memory register. Note the use of 'implied' multiplication in the "R()100A", where memory register 100 is recalled, and implicitly multiplied by the content of register A. Once an expression is typed into the machine, an "EXECUTE" key is pressed to cause the machine to evaluate the expression and display the result. As part of the calculation process, the result is automatically also placed in the "Z" register, allowing 'multi-step' calculations to occur. To enter program steps into the machine, expressions and program directives are entered, and the "STORE" key is pressed. This causes the machine to check the syntax of the line, 'compile' it into internal form, assign a line number (starts at 0, and increments one for each line of code), and store the code in program memory. Program memory and numbered register storage are overlapped, so as a program grows, the number of available numbered memory registers decreases. On the 9100A and 9100B, this overlap wasn't enforced, meaning that it was possible to write self-modifying code by referring to memory registers which had been 'filled' with program code. On the 9820, the division between program storage memory and storage register memory is enforced, so 'tricks' such as self-modifying code aren't possible.

HP Magnetic Cards. Top: Storage envelope for 6" card; Middle: 6" Card; Bottom: 10 1/2" Card.

The 9820 provides a magnetic card reader for offline storage of programs and/or data. The card reader is similar to that of the HP 9810, except that the 9820's reader can accept two different sizes of card. The standard card (HP Part #9126-0012), usable both in the 9810 and 9820, is six inches long (by 2 inches wide), and can hold the content of up to 45 memory registers per side. The 'extra capacity' card (HP Part #9162-0045) is 10 1/2" inches long, and can store 90 memory registers per side. Both types of card have scored 'knock outs' at each end of the card that, when removed, permanently marks that side of the card as being read-only, protecting the program or data on the card from erasure.

Cover of HP 9820A Simplified Operator's Manual

The 9820 is a fast machine, with virtually instantaneous results on basic math calculations, and barely detectable crunching on more complex problems. When running programs, the machine is also reasonably fast. The simple program:

0: "LOOP"
1: Z+1->Z
2: GTO "LOOP"

Which simply accumulates an accumulating count of the loops in the "Z" register, will accumulate 95 loops per second.

In base form, the 9820 cost nearly $5000 when introduced in 1972. Optional ROM packs and memory incrementally increased the price, with a machine configured as the one in the museum (Option 002 RAM expansion, User Definable Functions, Mathematics, and Peripheral Control ROM packs) selling for over $7200.

A little less than a year after the 9820A was introduced, Hewlett Packard introduced a follow-on machine, the 9821A. The 9821A replaced the magnetic card reader of the 9820A with a cassette tape drive, similar to that in the HP 9830, allowing for storage of more complex programs, as well as for data-file access through a built-in function ROM that had routines to allow user programs to read/write data to/from the cassette tape.

For much more detailed and comprehensive information on the HP9820A and other HP calculators, Dave Hicks' Museum of HP Calculators provides a wealth of detailed and interesting information.


Text and images Copyright ©1997-2011, Rick Bensene.